16. Steven Hatfill has made statements suggesting that he has previously prepared and used biological agents, including anthrax, on human beings outside the United States. On April 21, 2002 the FBI interviewed a witness (deleted) who recalls several statements Hatfill made in (deleted) describing his years in Africa in the late 1970's and early 1980's.

17. According to (deleted) Steven Hatfill stated in (deleted) that he (Hatfill) served as a mercenary for the Rhodesia military from 1979-1980, during the very years Rhodesian military and intelligence units are believed to have employed toxic chemical and biological agents against rebels in the closing years of a long and brutal civil war that led to the collapse of the Rhodesian government and the formation of the Zimbabwe state. During a 24 month period in 1979 and 1980, the rebel-held areas of Rhodesia experienced the worst outbreak of anthrax in world history - more than 10,738 human cases, 182 of them fatal. The epidemic spread to six of eight provinces in a country where anthrax had previously been rare, and only the insurgent controlled areas (supporting the guerilla war) were affected. According to (deleted) Hatfill stated that he served in the Rhodesian "Selous Scouts" and worked as a consultant to the Rhodesian Special Branch - the very units that are believed to have been responsible for the anthrax attacks in 1979-1980. Hatfill produced a document purportedly showing the "LD-50" lethal dose rates of anthrax and other biological agents that was based on data he collected while working for the Selous Scouts in Rhodesia. ("LD-50" is the amount of a solid or liquid material that it takes to kill 50% of the human population in a single dose,) Hatfill also boasted that he advised the Rhodesian Special Branch how to lace clothing distributed in rebel-held provinces with a lethal mixture of Organophosphate pesticide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in order to kill rebel opponents. (deleted) stated Hatfill claimed that his suggestion of adding DSMO made the mixture much more deadly and hundreds were killed as a result. Deleted the former head of the Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organization during the civil war, has publically admitted that the Rhodesian government deliberately distributed poisoned clothing that resulted in the deaths of hundreds of rebels and civilians.




I accused Hatfill of sending out the anthrax-laced letters on the basis of his former South African Nazi Party (AWB) membership combined with numerous other factors. My information that he was a Nazi came from Dr. John Michie[i] who was acquainted with Hatfill when Hatfill was a student conducting research for a Master of Science degree under the supervision of the Head of the Radiobiology Laboratory; Dr. Lothar Böhm. Dr. Michie was a staff member of the Laboratory conducting separate research projects, independently of Böhm/Hatfill. Hatfill told Dr. Michie and other hospital staff members that he was a AWB member and showed him a photograph to prove it in which he posed in full Nazi regalia with the AWB’s fuehrer, Eugene Terre Blanche. In a subsequent autobiography Hatfill admitted to his Nazi connection but of course played it down, “South Africa was in political turmoil when I was there. In 1983, out of curiosity I attended a few rallies sponsored by the fanatical right wing group known as the AWB. I had my photograph taken next to the radical leader of the AWB, Eugene Terre Blanche, a man I thought a dangerous fool. I subsequently had the photograph made into a Halloween card added a funny title to it, and gave this to a few friends as a joke. In light of some nonsense I have read regarding my activities at the time I might specify that I never trained AWB shock troops at the Milnerton Pistol Club or elsewhere. I am not aware that the Cape Town suburb of Milnerton had a pistol club. The AWB could have found a far better instructor than me out of the thousands of ex-servicemen of Afrikaner ancestry. (The A in AWB stands for Afrikaner. The AWB was an organization of rightwing individuals of Dutch colonist ancestry whose ancestors fought the British during the Boer War. As a general rule these folks did not have a great deal of time for anyone who spoke only English as I did.”

The AWB was no “fanatical right wing group” like the John Birchers, it was the South African Nazi Party. Although primarily an Afrikaner movement, with Afrikaans as their sole official language, the AWB also had English-speaking white members. Before this autobiography was released by the Justice Department Hatfill denied that the photo ever existed. When this author pointed this out to Pat Clawson,[ii] former Hatfill pro bono spokesman, he said that even if Hatfill lied to him about the existence of the photograph, it did not mean he mailed out the anthrax. The Weekly Standard got in on the act, “And nothing links Dr. Hatfill to Eugene Terre Blanche (Terre Blanche denies the connection) -- except a risibly [ludicrous, arousing laughter] amateurish South African news-service story, which cites a photograph that no one can find, and an unnamed ‘former colleague’ who says Hatfill once claimed to have run a Resistance Movement training session (whose leader denies that).”

This information on Hatfill was further corroborated when he was denied a CIA security clearance due to his AWB connections and because of his work for racist Rhodesia’s Central Intelligence Organization. Hatfill: “At the end of February 2002, a year after my application for clearance had been aborted by the termination of the contract for which I had sought it, I was surprised to receive a letter from the CIA advising me that my application had been turned down due to my involvement with Rhodesian authorities twenty years earlier. I did not need and was not at the time seeking CIA clearance. I was under the impression that my file had been closed pending possible re-application for clearance work under a contract for which it would be needed. Since I objected to the adverse conclusions drawn from my time in Africa, however, I appealed the negative determination. My appeal is pending at this time.”

There was good reason for this researcher to suspect a fat beer-bellied Nazi pig, a former Rhodesian intelligence agent and an individual who conned his way into the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland by using a forged instrument. Hatfill was asked about this,

Q. You were not awarded a Ph.D.?

A. Somewhere around 1998 approximate there.

Q. You learn in 1997?

A. I’m not sure, 1998 or 1999, possibly -- anyway, I learned that I did not receive it.

Q. And how did you come to that understanding?

A. In an exchange of e-mails with Rhodes University. I don’t recall the specifics.

Q. In any job applications that you’ve submitted, have you ever attached a copy of a diploma?

A. Yes, on one. National Institutes of Health [the institution that placed Hatfill at Fort Detrick].

Q. And that diploma states that you have a Ph.D.?

A. Yes. Don’t know what was going through my head.

Q. Is that document a forgery?

A. Yes.

Q. Take me through the steps in which you created that forged diploma.

A. I don’t recall, it’s a decade ago. I was talking to one of the guys in the pub and he said he was a computer guy. He said ‘I’ll whip one up for you.’ [This was] while I was at Oxford.

Q. So the diploma was created in 1997?

A. I don’t recall a specific time.

Fort Detrick is to germs what Fort Knox is to gold. In 1941 the US Chemical Warfare Service developed Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland as a biological agents development site. In 1969 it became known as USAMRIID after President Nixon disestablished the bioweapons program in 1968. Hatfill should not have been allowed with a thousand feet of Fort Detrick; he most certainly should not have been allowed access to a Biosafety Level 4 Suite. These laboratories are designed to prevent infectious microbes from being released into the environment and provide the highest possible level of safety to scientists carrying out experiments. Biosafety Level 4 uses several measures to ensure infectious agents are properly contained or destroyed. They include micro filtration of air, air-lock buffer zones, space suits with positive-pressure air supply, chemical decontamination, and decontamination at high temperature for long periods of all materials produced in the facility. Since he had Level 4 access Hatfill also had access to the less dangerous Level 3 labs, where experiments with anthrax and other bacteria were conducted. There, Hatfill had access to the exact strain of the bacteria that was included with the anthrax letters.

You can rest assured Hatfill will never have contact with America’s deadliest germs again! Biologists at U.S. Army labs will now have to undergo Top Secret background checks to work with anthrax and other bio-agents. Anthrax is the second-highest biohazard risk, but access to it has not required such security clearance in the past. In order to even be in the same room with anthrax now scientists will have to have a special key and Top Secret clearance.

A Nazi with access to the identical strain of anthrax as found in the letters? Nazism is a criminal conspiracy to commit genocide and is illegal in many countries, including France, England and Canada. What other American microbiologist who worked with the most deadly biological agents known to man had been a member of the Nazi party? The FBI and the media and myself had good reason to suspect him.

None-the-less when it comes to the anthrax mailings now Hatfill is the new Richard Jewell – Jewell was a harmless man who was falsely accused of being the Atlanta Olympic Park bomber. Hatfill will receive almost $3 million in cash and an additional $150,000 annually for the next 20 years to settle a lawsuit he filed in 2003, charging the FBI and U.S. Justice Department with leaking information to the news media in order to link him to the mailing of letters that contained anthrax spores. By doing so the Department of Justice tacitly admitted that Hatfill was innocent. I was demoralized. I had falsely accused Hatfill of a horrendous crime and helped put him through the wringer. My heart went out to this poor Nazi bastard.

HATFILL’S EARLY YEARS: Hatfill’s father Norman Hatfill stated: “I am told when my great grandfather came into Indiana he changed the spelling of his name when he married to distance himself from the feuding Hatfields”[iii] and he also stated, “I am a descendent of the Hatfields and have always been told that the spelling was changed to Hatfill by one of my ancestors when he moved to Illinois from Kentucky or West Virginia.”

Dr. Steven J. Hatfill was born was born on October 24, 1953 in St. Louis, Missouri. According to his cousin Peter Hatfill, a school principal in Jerseyville, Illinois, Hatfill and his sister were adopted shortly after birth. His foster mother Shirley Anne, a housewife, was born September 9, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. She married Norman Hatfill on August 6, 1949 in Connersville, Indiana. Shirley Hatfill passed away in Mattoon January 17, 2008. Norman Hatfill survives, as do “Steve Hatfill and his special friend Peck Chegne of Washington, D.C.; Mrs. Hatfill was a member of the First United Methodist Church where she had been a Sunday school teacher. The Hatfill family owned a thoroughbred horse farm in Ocala, Florida, and several Florida waterfront condominiums.” Steven’s foster father Norman was an electrician[iv] and part-time horse breeder who was raised in Illinois. He became president of the Electric Laboratories and Sales Corporation in 1968, an electric meter manufacturer and repair company.

Hatfill grew up in Mattoon. A source that wishes to remain anonymous reported: “I went to elementary school with Steve and he was diabolical then. You better hope they find the information they need to get him off the street. If you question this, he lived on Western Avenue and his grade school was Hawthorne in Mattoon, Illinois.” A source reported: “And, what about letters he wrote to people in Mattoon when he was in Africa? He thanked someone for all the persecution he had in high school that made him a mercenary.” Hatfill graduated from Mattoon High School in May 1971 then went on to study basic biological and chemical undergraduate courses at Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas, beginning, September 1971.

Newsweek Magazine reported that Military records show Hatfill was a Marine Corps Reservist from October 1971 to June 1972 then discharged. Hatfill said he was part of the United States Marine Corps Officers Candidate Program (PLC). PLC lets a student complete their academic career uninterrupted at the college or university of their choice. If they maintain an overall “C” average or higher, upon graduation, they will be commissioned as a Marine Second Lieutenant. Details of his brief Marine career were blacked out on his official transcript.[v] A source with access to Hatfill’s military records finally cleared things up, “Regarding his military activity in the U.S. Marine Corps, Dr. Hatfill spent six weeks in an undergraduate summer program which he received academic credit. He was never discharged as reported in the Newsweek article.”[vi]

Rather than become a college dropout, Hatfill enrolled in a program where he would study practical medicine overseas. In the middle of his studies, around 1973, he spent eight months at a Methodist mission hospital in Kapanga, Zaire, (Republic de Congo) that had been operated by Glenn J. Eschtruth, M.D.[vii], and his wife, Lena Eschtruth since 1960. Lena Eschtruth: “Nobody sent him, I don't even know how he knew about us. But you don't kick a kid out. You know how it is: When you're young, you can set the world on fire.” Dr. Eschtruth was suspected by the KGB of reporting back to the CIA or to Air Force Intelligence on communist activity in sub-Saharan Africa.

A blog entry[viii] reported, “By contrast, western medicine was dispensed at the mission hospital under the direction of Dr. Glenn Eschtruth, the only surgeon within 100 miles of Kapanga. In 1976 an enigmatic character named Hatfill appeared without warning in Kapanga to volunteer as a health assistant at the mission hospital. The 19-year-old daughter of Lena and Glenn Eschtruth had a brief sad marriage with Hatfill, and after Dr. Eschtruth's murder Hatfill left the US to became a specialist in biological warfare. Hatfill studied and practiced medicine in Rhodesia and the Republic of South Africa, while serving with their special military forces. Returning to the US in the late 1990s, Hatfill was employed by the US Army Medical Research Institute to work on Ebola and other viral diseases. Hatfill's knowledge of biological warfare pathogens and toxins caused him to be interrogated by the FBI in association with the anthrax-by-mail incidents in October 2001.”

Hatfill wrote: “As a college undergraduate during the early 1970’s I had a chance to spend a formative year in Africa working as a volunteer public health assistant at a remote Methodist Mission hospital in Katanga Province of Zaire, now called the Congo. There I participated in a number of rural village health care projects and vaccination programs including the WHO Smallpox eradication program. Working in this area I developed an interest in tropical medicine and public health as it applies to developing countries.” He did not mention that he fell in love with Dr. Eschtruth’s daughter Caroline who was preparing to return to the United States to attend college. Caroline Eschtruth (born June 19, 1957, at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida) worked at her father’s clinic as a practical nurse.

In 1974 Hatfill stated that he “returned to the United States from Africa and completed my undergraduate degree at Southwestern College finishing with a Bachelor of Arts in July 1975. I then enlisted in the U.S. Army.” Hatfill enlisted in the US Army on June 20, 1975, at the age of 21. Hatfill’s 1997 resume stated: “June 1975 to June 1977 United States Army 7th Special Forces Group, JFK Center for Special Warfare [Ft. Bragg]. Practical Experience United States Marine Corps Officer Candidate Program...served with US Army Special Forces after college graduation where my commanding officer was Col. Charles Beckworth, who was later to lead the abortive hostage rescue mission into Iraq.” The Colonel’s name was Beckwith and the rescue mission was in Iran. Beckwith wasn’t at Fort Bragg until the late 1970’s.

Hatfill wrote that in the spring of 1976, he began the Special Forces Qualification Course however he said he was discharged from active duty on July 2, 1976 and joined the Army National Guard. But according to Hatfill’s Curriculum Vitae[ix] from June 1975 to March 1978 he served in the United States Institute for Military Assistance at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.[x] Hatfill’s MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) was 05B2S, Special Forces Communications Specialist - Radio Operator. There was even more confusion about his military career and Newsweek Magazine reported: “He did a three-year stint in the Army, stationed in the United States, but did not rise above the rank of private.” The Baltimore Sun reported: “Army records show Hatfill began Special Forces training at Fort Bragg on January 23, 1976, but was academically dropped only one month later in February 1976 and never completed the training.”

During casual conversations Hatfill claimed to have served in the U.S. Army in Vietnam and was discharged after his plane was shot down and he broke his back. Hatfill’s college alumni publication reported he served in the Special Forces in Vietnam, based on information that he provided. Hatfill made himself into a hero in Vietnam. However, his military record showed that to be false. He joined the military in 1975, when Vietnam was ending. Hatfill served variously in the Army, Army Reserve and National Guard from February 1975 to January 1981 but how long he lasted in each of these services is a whole other question.

Hatfill: “After active duty I returned to my hometown in Illinois where I worked as a factory security guard for a brief period.” Hatfill married 19-year-old Caroline Ruth Eschtruth on October 11, 1976, at the Pinnebog United Methodist Church, Pinnebog, Minnesota.

Meanwhile, on November 11, 1975 Agostinho Neto the head of the MPLA (the Communist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) became President of the People’s Republic of Angola (supported by Cuba and the USSR). At the same time, the FLNA (the non-Marxist Congo-centered National Front for the Liberation of Angola) and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) proclaimed the People’s Democratic Republic of Angola (supported by the United States and South Africa). Seven months into his marriage, on April 1977 Lena and Glenn Eschtruth and a number of foreign missionaries and aid workers in the Kapanga area were placed under house arrest by mercenaries who had invaded Zaire from Angola. The Marxist regime of President Agostinho Neto had accused Zaire of harboring and training pro-Western guerrillas who were defeated in 1976 by Neto's forces with the help of Soviet and Cuban-directed troops. On April 19,1977 when the Zairian troops, with western assistance routed the Communist invaders, Glenn Eschtruth became the only foreign detainee to be executed by the departing mercenaries.

The blog entry continues, “Missionaries of all denominations communicated with one another by short wave radio. For this purpose Dr. Eschtruth had large ham radio antenna in back of their ranch house. One evening Glenn sent word to a ham operator in South Jersey, who contacted my family that I was okay. This vital communication equipment would later cost Dr. Eschtruth his life. In early 1977 mercenaries directed by Soviet and Cuban troops invaded Zaire from Angola, and the missionaries and aid workers in Katanga Province were placed under house arrest. As the Zairian troops repelled the invasion, Dr. Glenn Eschtruth was seized by the rebel gorillas who accused him of working for the American CIA. His body was found in shallow grave not far from Kapanga, making him the only foreign national killed in the invasion. “Even after her husband's brutal murder, the strong commitment of Dr. Eschtruth's wife Lena to assisting in the health care of the peoples in Africa caused her to return to Zaire as a nurse at the mission station run by the Enright family near Lake Kafakumba in Katanga Province. Lena commanded a medical riverboat which was a floating clinic for delivering medicine to villagers along the Lualaba River, the name given to the upper extension of the Zaire River.”

Eschtruth was singled out for death by the invaders because the KGB had supplied them with information about coded transmissions emanating from his ham radio equipment. Doctor Eschtruth was marched away, and his body was found in a shallow grave some distance from Kapanga. He is buried at the mission hospital in Kapanga.[xi] It is now common knowledge that the CIA used missionaries as spies. After an intense campaign by religious and civil liberties groups the rules covering CIA recruitment of missionaries were adopted in 1977. The groups had raised objections to disclosures that the CIA had used clergy in covert operations. The rules forbad the CIA from hiring or establishing any intelligence relationships "with any U.S. clergy or missionary whether or not ordained, who is sent out by a mission or church organization to preach, teach, heal or proselytize." Eschtruth was probably a CIA asset but another possibility exists. There might be a correlation between Hatfill being a Special Forces radio operator and the Rev. Eschtruth being killed because of a ham radio antenna. Perhaps it was Hatfill who transmitted the suspicious radio signals?

The death of Hatfill’s father-in-law instilled a deep hatred in Hatfill for African Communists. “He would talk about running around in the bush and throwing grenades in Zimbabwe and that sort of thing,” Edward Rybicki, who met Hatfill at the University of Cape Town, said. He also boasted about shooting grenades into the Zimbabwe offices of the African National Congress, (ANC) which was fighting to overthrow white rule in South Africa, Rybicki added. Another source added: “Hatfill once told me that he'd killed a terrorist, whose sandals he took as a souvenir.” Hatfill told his friends that his father-in-law’s death "caused me to undertake some actions other people wouldn't understand.”

Hatfill earned Medical Laboratory Technician Certification in August 1977: “Training and Certification as a Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) from the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.” Sometime in 1977 Caroline and Steven Hatfill separated. On February 22, 1978 Kamin Marie Hatfill, the daughter of Steven Hatfill and Caroline Eschtruth was born. In May 1978, Caroline and Steven divorced. Hatfill told a friend his wife had “died in the Congo.” In 2002, although he never re-married, Hatfill said: “I have a family, and until recently, I had a reputation, a career and a bright professional future.” Caroline Eschtruth married John Brian McIver a few years later. A source reported: “Let’s say there's no love lost between Steven Hatfill and Caroline Hatfill who did not even tell him she was pregnant before he left for Rhodesia. She would not accompany him to Rhodesia despite his rather cruel pressure tactics. Hatfill did not realize Kamin existed until she had her first child [with McIver]. Kamin traced Hatfill down and they were re-united. Hatfill, “In 1978, I decided to attempt a career in tropical medicine. Given my love for the African continent as a result of my undergraduate experience and my interest in tropical medicine, it was an easy decision to study tropical medicine in this region of the world where these diseases were prevalent.” Love for Africa? To put it in politically incorrect terms, Hatfill wanted to kill every nigger he could get his hands on!

RHODESIA AND ANTHRAX: Since Hatfill never received a B.S. Degree from Southwestern, it was impossible for him to be admitted to a medical school in the United States. Hatfill continued, “I thus applied to the Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine in Salisbury Rhodesia, one of the few first rate medical schools in Africa, where my G.I. Bill educational benefits would apply. I was accepted for admission in 1978. I arrived in Rhodesia in March 1978, underwent immigration and university admission and started medical school a week later. I was 27 years old.” The question has been asked, why and how an American citizen joined Rhodesia’s medical school. “The only time we admitted non-Rhodesians is when a student came from a country without a school of medicine,” explained a source. How did Hatfill enter medical school?

Marlene Burger of the South African Mail and Guardian reported Hatfill was admitted because he had come to the attention of an anatomy professor at Godfrey Huggins named Robert Burns Symington through the white racist network. Robert Symington shared Hatfill’s desire to maintain White rule in Rhodesia - the Whites in Rhodesia were never more than five percent of the population yet they ran the show in its entirety. In a system more repressive than apartheid in neighboring South Africa, this minority regime retained power by controlling the police, military, politics, and economy. When England refused to grant independence to Rhodesia because of its racist system, the Rhodesian government led by Ian Smith unilaterally declared independence in 1965. The U.S. joined the U.N. in imposing sanctions against Rhodesia. Nixon punched a hole in these sanctions in 1971. The Carter administration reinstated sanctions in 1977 one year before Hatfill arrived.

Hatfill tried to make it seem as white racist rule had ended shortly after he moved to Rhodesia: “Shortly after I started my studies, the white government led by Ian Smith came to an end and a transitional government for the country came into power. Within a year the country was renamed Zimbabwe / Rhodesia and Bishop Abel Muzorewa became the country’s first black prime minister [he held office for only a few months in 1979]. While I proceeded through my first two years of medical training, Zimbabwe remained engulfed in a civil war pitting the government of Bishop Abel Muzorewa against the insurgent movements led by Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe.”

Marlene Burger, “It was Robert Burns Symington who arranged for Hatfill to study medicine at the Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine in Rhodesia and served as his mentor. Although serving at the time as a signaler with US Special Forces, Hatfill went to Rhodesia in 1978 after spending eight months as a health assistant at a Methodist mission hospital in Kapanga, Zaire.” Symington, a professor of anatomy, was the father of Rhodesia’s biological warfare program. Symington experimented with the odorless and colorless organo-phosphate, parathion. Organo-phosphates are extremely difficult for anyone other than an expert to detect in an autopsy. The poison must enter the body’s largest hair follicles, underarm or around the crotch. Smearing on underwear is the most efficient method.[xii]

According to Peter Stiff, a senior officer in the Rhodesian British South African Police Force Symington was the scientist behind countless poisonings. In a book published in 1985 Stiff records a conversation in which Symington (who he calls Sam Roberts) offers an operator Thallium with which to kill a man. “It was said there were some months when Sam Roberts killed more terrorists than the Rhodesian Light Infantry. In April 1978 a group of 17 ZANLA terrorist guerillas who had been on operation staggered across the Mozambique border to the safety of their protected rear bases. They were vomiting, defecating and writhing with pain. Transported to Beria where they were hospitalized, they died mysteriously, one by one over a period of three days.” The operator asked how this had happened and Symington replied, “Special Branch knew where they were based. We doctored some sacks of corn meal with Thallium and deposited them in a farm store they were going to raid for food. They did, naturally burning it down afterwards, as was their practice.”

A senior staff member at the University of Zimbabwe School of Medicine stated, “I did suspect that Symington was connected to the military, but I did not know his connection with Hatfill. I only thought Hatfill had come (into medical school) via the military since he had connections with the Rhodesian army.” The source was one of Symington’s colleagues in the school’s department of anatomy and also a lecturer of Hatfill.

Black students at the then-University of Rhodesia had always suspected Symington of engaging in sinister bio-chemical experiments in conjunction with the Rhodesian military. He was one of the major focus points of the 1972 student demonstration. Unable to reconcile himself to black majority rule at independence and fearful of reprisals, Symington moved to South Africa circa 1981, where he died of a heart attack in a swimming pool a year after joining the University of Cape Town.

The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), an NGO, reported, “Although one former member of the Special Branch of the Rhodesian police - a force that was still designated, quaintly, as the British South African Police - claimed that he and his colleagues were aware of the use of poisons as early as 1973, the first clear evidence of this dates from 1975 or 1976, when the Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organization apparently asked doctors and chemists from the University of Rhodesia to identify and test a range of chemical and biological agents that could be used as a fear factor in the war against nationalist guerrillas. Professor Robert Symington, head of the clinical program in the university's Anatomy Department, then recruited several colleagues and students to carry out this research.”

This program continued into the late 1970’s and Hatfill, one of Symington’s more motivated students, began to work on the culturing of anthrax for him. Symington recommended Hatfill for an elite unit - the Selous Scouts - as Symington was in charge of the Selous Scouts biowarfare program. Hatfill stated, “The racial composition of the Rhodesian Army was approximately 90% black and 10% white soldiers reflecting a basic demographic of the country at that time. Several of my medical school classmates performed military duties during their medical school vacations. One of my classmates was killed on active duty and one was severely injured. Although it was not required of any foreign national to serve in the military, I volunteered to serve in a reserve unit during my vacations from medical school. I participated in active call-ups from 1978 until the end of the war in 1980. My rank was rifleman (equivalent to a private in the U.S. Armed Forces). During my active duty call ups, I served first in the Rhodesian Regiment, in a long range reconnaissance unit of that regiment, in a newly formed Special Forces unit [Selous Scouts] and finally as a medic assigned to a Special Branch (police) / Selous Scout base.”

While Hatfill was in the Selous Scouts, the Selous Scouts used the anthrax Hatfill had cultured as a weapon against the guerilla forces that was attempting to topple the minority government of Rhodesia. Did young Hatfill help design mobile bioweapons labs to produce the anthrax in the bush? The Special Branch of the Selous Scouts was a combination of Army Special Forces soldiers and Special Branch police officers. The Selous Scouts were comprised mainly of black African collaborators and a few white soldiers. But the Special Branch was entirely white, because no black African could be trusted to carry out a genocidal mission. It was an elite Gestapo-like police/army unit that tortured terrorist suspects until they gave up their comrades. Hatfill needed a cover for his work and was referred on to as “a volunteer junior Scout medic.” He was dispatched to a field hospital at a base called Fort Bindura. There, he bandaged wounded captured guerilla fighters and acted as an assistant of sorts for the true Scouts medics. The FBI found a graduation certificate from a Scouts’ tracking course and a good conduct certificate when it searched Hatfill’s apartment. He joined the Scouts in 1978 when the anthrax outbreak started and left the Scouts in 1980 when the anthrax outbreak ended.

THE ANTHRAX OUTBREAK: Symington and Hatfill were key players in this biological warfare project, which resulted in the world’s worst recorded outbreak of anthrax in the latter phase of Zimbabwe’s liberation war, between 1978 and 1980. Hatfill and Symington helped cause over 10,000 cases, most of them coetaneous, unleashed against black guerrillas through his participation in the white army's much-feared Selous Scouts. Selous Scouts / Special Branch covertly distributed the deadly anthrax spore among the hungry cattle of the Rhodesian tribal trust lands. The logic was kill the black man’s cattle, and food for the Rhodesian guerrillas dies with them; kill the cattle and blame the guerrillas and win a psychological victory at the same time. In 1978-1980, vollum would be the strain of choice for an anthrax attack.

From 1989 to 1992, Dr. Meryl Nass, MD,[xiii] researched the epidemiology of the largest outbreak of anthrax in history in Rhodesia in the late 1970s and realized that an inexplicable spike in the casualty figures had occurred during the years 1979 through 1980. Before this Rhodesia reported only an average of thirteen human cases a year before 1978. However, in the two years 1979/1980, a staggering 10,738 human cases were recorded and 182 humans died of the illness. Thousands of cattle were infected and slaughtered. No commercial, white-owned farms were affected. Even more puzzling was the way in which the anthrax spores were transported over very large distances - across areas where no bovine cases were known to have occurred. Jeremy Brickhill, a white Zimbabwean activist who joined the guerrilla forces during the war of liberation, was himself a victim of a South African military hit squad in 1987, when he was severely injured in a car bomb attack, alleged that by 1975 clinical trials were performed on human guinea pigs - little-known political detainees - at a remote Selous Scout camp provided by Rhodesia’s Central Intelligence Organization. By 1976, the Central Intelligence Organization and the Selous Scouts Special Branch carried out the actual deployment of the successfully tested biological weapons in target areas. South African military and security personnel who not only acted as advisers and monitors, but also played some part in the development of the chemical and biological agents, assisted these men. When the war was over, the biological warriors slipped back south across the border, returned to South Africa, and studied the lessons of Rhodesia.

 In December 1998 Health Minister Timothy Stamps of Zimbabwe began an investigation into the use of anthrax. The government’s probe was announced as suspicions strengthened that some possible side effects of those germs could be responsible for fatal diseases prevalent in Zimbabwe, including anthrax. Former Rhodesian premier Ian Smith quickly dismissed this as a “lot of rubbish.” Health Minister Stamps said anthrax, which breaks out often in some parts of Zimbabwe killing mainly livestock, was laboratory-devised. “I am sure the anthrax was a laboratory-devised virulent type…and one suspects that it was specifically developed as a weapon against an overwhelming number of people who were regarded as enemies to those who occupied power at the time,” he said.[xiv]

Hatfill had this to say about this anthrax outbreak in his autobiography, “In this part of the world, anthrax outbreaks occasionally occurred. During the time I was in Zimbabwe / Rhodesia there was a major outbreak of anthrax in certain rural areas. This outbreak was extensively scientifically and medically researched on site and found to have arisen from an unusual long period of drought compounded by a breakdown in rural veterinary services. The result of this research was published in several peer-reviewed scientific papers: Davies, JCA. “A Major Epidemic of Anthrax in Zimbabwe - African Journal of Medicine 1983 [two more citations involved studies by Davies and were dated 1982 and 1985]; Kaufmann AF. “Observations on the Occurrence of Anthrax as Related to Soil Type and Rainfall Salisbury Medical Bulletin, 1990.” I had nothing to do with the research or writing of any of these studies of the incidence of anthrax in Zimbabwe.”

Three of the studies were by the same scientist and another was written ten years after the anthrax outbreak. Hatfill’s attorneys contended that after the column was published, Professor Milton Leitenberg told Kristof that Hatfill had no connection to that outbreak, which was not bioterrorism but had natural causes.[xv] Peter Stiff who not in some classroom but in Rhodesia disagreed with Leitenberg - as did Col (Dr.) Jim A. Davis who was “uncertain” that this program did not exist. Davis is Deputy Director of the US Air Force’s Counter-proliferation Center and also Deputy Director of the Department of Future Conflicts. Milton Leitenberg is a lowly college professor and a Cold War retread that specializes in debunking biowarfare reports. He is associated with the biowarfare establishment.[xvi]

Hatfill didn’t consider his participation in bio-genocide relevant and stated: “I especially object to having my character assassinated by reference to events from my past which bear absolutely no relationship to the question of who the anthrax killer is. As a substitute, the press and now the public have been offered events from my past going back 20 or more years, as if this were critical to the matter at hand. In fact, it is not. No more than any of you, I do not claim to have lived a perfect life. Like your selves, there are things I would probably do or say differently than I did 10 or 20 or more years ago. Modern information-retrieval technology, coupled with sufficient motivation, can lead to anyone's life and work being picked apart for every error, wrinkle, failed memory or inconsistency. Mine can; so can yours.”

RHODESIAN SPECIAL AIR SERVICE: Hatfill also served in the C. Squadron of the Rhodesian Special Air Service. In his Curriculum Vitae Hatfill said he had “active combat experience with the Rhodesian Special Air Service.” The Nuclear Threat Institute reported, “As for anthrax, this same source said that anthrax spores were ‘used in an experimental role in the Gutu, Chilimanzi, Masvingo, and Mberengwa areas...to kill off the cattle of tribesmen,’ harmful incidents that were then attributed by Rhodesian Army psychological operations officers to infiltrating guerrillas. For his part, former Officer Commanding Counter Terrorist Operations Michael John McGuinness said he was surprised to learn from some of his colleagues that anthrax had been disseminated on at least one occasion. The Selous Scouts had originally been asked to carry out the task, but their commander Lieutenant-Colonel Ron Reid-Daly had refused because he thought it would be too risky for his men. In the end, members of the Rhodesian Special Air Service (SAS) regiment delivered the anthrax by dropping it from an aircraft near Plumtree, on the Botswana border.” At first Michael John McGuinness had denied the Scouts ever engaged in B/W and said they wouldn't have welcomed an American's help anyway. “We didn't trust foreigners with that sort of thing,” he said.[xvii]

Hatfill’s Curriculum Vitae had him serving simultaneously in the United States Institute for Military Assistance and two Rhodesian military units. Was Hatfill was a Defense Intelligence Agency asset? Although American foreign policy was ostensibly that of opposing white supremacist regimes, the DIA and CIA had an intense interest in counter-insurgency campaigns being waged against Communist rebel elements. The earliest corroboration of the Selous Scout anthrax operation was a secret report sent by a U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency officer to the Pentagon. “According to [source deleted], a member of the Rhodesian Selous Scouts admitted in 1978 that ‘they’ had tried biological warfare techniques to kill terrorists. The most logical method of delivery of the anthrax was an anthrax-laced cattle food.”[xviii] Hatfill reportedly returned to the United States frequently during his stay in Rhodesia. This would have provided an opportunity for the DIA to debrief him about the counter-insurgency operations being carried out in Rhodesia. Hatfill claimed to have been a double agent during the time he spent in Africa, which meant he was spying on Rhodesia for the United States, but there is evidence that he was actually a triple agent and his loyalty was to Rhodesia. Years later Hatfill would flunk a CIA polygraph test when questioned about his connection to Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organization.

Hatfill has a big mouth and couldn’t help bragging about how many Africans he killed. Marlene Burger reported, “Several of Hatfill's acquaintances said he had hinted over the years at having been involved in the world's worst recorded anthrax outbreak, which killed at least 180 of more than 10,500 human victims between 1978 and 1980 in the Rhodesian Tribal Trust Lands. The outbreak is believed to have been caused deliberately by Rhodesian security forces with the assistance of the late Professor Bob Symington, head of the anatomy department at the Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine in Harare and father of a crude but effective bio-warfare program launched against guerrilla fighters and confirmed in recent years by senior ex-Rhodesian military officers.”[xix]

He bragged to Stan Bedlington who hadn't seen Hatfill for a while, but still had vivid memories of him. They'd first met at a Baltimore bioterrorism conference. Bedlington, a retired CIA agent, had spent six years as a senior analyst with the CIA Counter-terrorism Center. Hatfill was working as a virology researcher at Fort Detrick. Soon they ran into each other again at Charley's Place in McLean, then a favorite hangout for the U.S. intelligence community. Agents and officials from the CIA and Pentagon mingled with private consultants and law enforcement agents. Most were cleared to handle classified information, but after long workdays and a few drinks, the conversation often veered to tales of dark intrigue and, occasionally, into drunken bluster. Hatfill, who first showed up there with men whom Bedlington recognized as bodyguards for Saudi Arabian Prince Bandar bin Sultan bragged about being an ex-Green Beret. He walked with a slight limp and told people it was the result of being shot during combat. In a convincing British accent that he could turn on at will, he described parachute jumps and commando training he did under the direction of the British Special Air Service. He detailed his exploits as a member of the Selous Scouts, an elite counterinsurgency unit of Rhodesia's white supremacist army that became notorious for brutality during that country's civil war. He even recounted a devastating outbreak of anthrax poisoning in the Rhodesian bush in the late 1970s, an event later suspected to be part of an effort by the Selous Scouts to control guerrilla uprisings.[xx]

Pat Clawson did not believe Hatfill was involved in the anthrax attacks in Rhodesia and stated: “Well the issue had come up and Hatfill addressed it in previous statements about what he had been doing in Rhodesia and Hatfill denied right from the beginning that he’d ever had any kind of involvement in any of that kind of stuff.” If Hatfill denies it then it never happened. Clawson took Hatfill at his word, just as he believed Hatfill when he told him that the photo of himself and Eugene Terre Blanc never existed.

WOUTER BASSON AND THE SELOUS SCOUTS: Wouter Basson was William Patrick’s South African counterpart. In 1982 Wouter Basson founded Project Coast, South Africa's biological warfare program. According to a source the biological materials inventory assembled by Project Coast included over 80 strains of anthrax, of which 30 are "virulent," 12 "very active" and 3 "deadly WMD," the latter of which include the Ames strain.[xxi]

Evidence suggested Wouter Basson might have known Hatfill because of Basson and Hatfill’s connection with the Special Branch of the Selous Scouts. Although Basson was based out of South Africa, he had an intense interest in Special Branch activities because if it worked against insurgents in Rhodesia it might also work in South Africa. Wouter Basson: “I've never met Hatfill. I believe he was a South African Defense Force member but he was never involved in 7th Medical Battalion.”[xxii] Basson had dealings with the Selous Scouts and many Selous Scouts who left Rhodesia were quickly integrated into special units of the SADF. A witness at the Basson murder trial, Mr. K., testified that he had been one of the founding members of the Selous Scouts in Rhodesia. He left Rhodesia in 1978 and joined the South African Defense Force as a member of Special Forces in 1979. In the same year he was approached by the Commander of Special Forces, General Loots and the Minister of Defense, General Magnus Malan and instructed to establish a covert unit within Special Forces that would adopt the modis operandi of the Selous Scouts. To this end Mr. K. was instructed to establish a front company under which cover the unit would operate. Initially an estate agency by the name of NKJM was established, however since none of the founder members had any knowledge of the real estate business they soon changed the name to NKTF Security Consultants. The Unit was known as Operation Barnacle. The chief objective of the unit was elimination of identified State enemies and the carrying out of super-sensitive covert operations, which could include eliminations. Other objectives of the unit included the elimination of members of own forces who threatened to expose covert operations. Intelligence gathering. Ambushes. Combat intelligence. Conducting of chemical operations. Mr. K. told the court that he had not personally been involved in operations involving the use of chemicals. Mr. K. testified that during 1979 and 1980 he had recruited former Rhodesia soldiers and members of the South African Defense Force to the unit. Due to the nature of pseudo operations carried out by the unit most of the operators recruited were black. Pseudo operations required that the members of the SADF unit infiltrate SWAPO under the guise of being SWAPO members.

Mr. C, who may not be named in terms of a court order, for fear of reprisals was another witness against Basson. Mr. C. was a Selous Scout from 1970 to 1980, specializing in pseudo operations. After joining the SADF's Special Forces in 1980, he spent another 10 years conducting pseudo operations and also joined the Civil Cooperation Bureau. Mr. C. said he first met Basson “in passing” in then Rhodesia in the late 1970s. This happened in the communal mess at the Selous Scouts Head Quarters outside Harare. Basson was in a group of South African security force members who had gone to Rhodesia to take part in joint operations with the Selous Scouts. Again Basson denied being in Rhodesia in the late 70s and it was in fact impossible for him to have been there, since he was a full-time medical student until 1981. From 1980, Mr. C. was stationed in Nelspruit, conducting pseudo operations and working for the Civil Cooperation Bureau. Basson was acquainted with numerous members of the Selous Scouts with no medical background. When he came across one that had such a background it would have definitely aroused his interest.

Yet another reason that indicated Hatfill was involved with Basson was that Basson testified that he was the author of the psychological profile of the Special Forces operator. He said he had been asked to compile the profile when it was found that although medical doctors qualifying as Special Forces members had a 75% pass rate, other recruits had only a 50% pass rate. Asked why this should be, Basson pointed out that it was easier to turn an intelligent being into a strong and hardened military operator than to turn a physically strong person into an intelligent being.

In May 1979 former French Foreign Legionnaire Charles “Chris” Timothy Pessarra,[xxiii] 50, who served in the Rhodesian army, saw Wouter Basson inject five unconscious guerrillas with a solution on board a “death plane” from which they were then thrown out over Mozambique after a powdered substance was sprinkled on their bodies. The unconscious guerrillas had been disguised in the camouflage uniforms of the Selous Scouts, complete with firearms and false papers. Pessarra assumed the intention was to drop them over Mozambique where their bodies would spread “contamination” among whichever guerrilla force recovered them. Pessarra said the top-secret death flight had been under the control of the Selous Scouts.[xxiv]

During Basson’s trial in South Africa in early 2000, in answering questions relating to the testimony of an earlier witness that Basson had been in Rhodesia, Basson said he was aware of allegations that chemical and biological weapons had been used in Rhodesia because in 1981, he was summonsed by the then chief director counter-intelligence and told that a container of poisons had been uncovered as part of an ANC arms cache. It was a green metal trunk and Basson had to examine the contents. Being still a novice, he landed up in hospital as a result. He was told that the ANC had captured the trunk of toxins from the Selous Scouts. It contained mainly insecticides, which were analyzed at the University of Pretoria by Dr. Willie Basson.

South Africa later attempted a program similar to that of the Selous Scouts Special Branch of toxic warfare, this one involving the poisoning of livestock feed. Asked if he had ever heard about poison being added to cornmeal Basson said that during the mid-1980s he heard that the Council for Scientific Research had been asked to test mealie-meal from Sector 10 of the Operational Area (Ovamboland - now part of Namibia) that had been contaminated with swimming pool chemicals. This made no sense to him, since the particular chemical supposedly used, is the one, which measures pH level in pools, and it changes color when wet, so the mealie-meal would presumable also have changed color when used.

Basson, who is persona non-gratis in the USA, said the FBI contacted him to ask about Hatfill, and he'd never heard of him. He said Hatfill had no contact with South African Special Forces or intelligence.[xxv] The records of Project Coast were destroyed after being transferred to CD-ROM. At an unspecified date after this the American authorities reportedly showed an unwelcome interest in the disks, requesting access to them. President de Klerk refused this request, and the National Intelligence Agency then ordered that security surrounding the disks be stepped up even further, since the disks had become a potential espionage target.

Hatfill continued his narrative: “The war ended in 1980, with the election of Robert Mugabe’s political party and his appointment as Prime Minister. (Mugabe remains in power to date, to the generally recognized misfortune of his country and countrymen). Following the end of the conflict the countries name was changed to Zimbabwe. I continued my medical studies and in my third year took part time employment as a medical assistant and an industrial health clinic. I also had a national (Zimbabwean) scholarship that took care of my medical school fees, and part time evening job as bartender. The medical school training program was lengthier than that of U.S. medical schools, including such extra subjects as community dentistry and mandatory community service in small rural hospitals for several weeks at a time. In 1983 I also performed the first of several large-scale surveys of rural health in the poorer areas of Northern Zimbabwe, eventually published in the scientific literature. I graduated from medical school in 1984.

On November 11, 1983 Hatfill received notice that had failed his final exams. He threw a fit and when the guards came to subdue him he resisted, and threw the guard into a plate glass window. Hatfill nearly was arrested and chucked out of university but thanks to Professor Symington he was allowed to stay on for an extra six months to re-take his exams, and passed in 1984. Hatfill graduated from Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine in April 1984 and received a Medical Degree. His resume stated: “Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons. Includes all basic medical sciences and clinical studentships (Andrew Fleming Teaching Hospital). Rotating Internship at the Paul Kruger Hospital in the Republic South Africa. Attended Educational Council for Foreign Medical Graduates USA (ECFMG) - Certificate No. 376-621-9.”

This indicated that Hatfill spent a good deal of time in South Africa when he was studying in Rhodesia and that he probably had a long standing relationship with the South African Nazi Party, the AWB. By the end of the 1970s, South African Defense Force military intelligence was a principal source of funding for the Rhodesian counter-insurgency program, including the Selous Scouts. The Rhodesian defense budget was very small, and the regime had one rudimentary chemical and biological warfare plant that received outside aid from South Africa. In assisting Rhodesia, South African researchers continued to work on CBW and land mine projects.

Hatfill was registered with the South African Health Practitioner Council from January 1984 to May 2001.[xxvi] He holds Medical License No. RSA-MP28117 South African Medical and Dental Council. This did not make sense. Hatfill graduated in April 1984. He obtained his medical registration in January 1984, before he graduated. Did Hatfill have a forged diploma? Hatfill’s friend John Voster recalled: “I first met him when I was in the Rhodesian Army in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. After Zimbabwe got independence he moved to Cape Town and worked for several General Practitioners in the city.”

Hatfill then attended Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). If you are an international medical graduate and wish to enter an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited residency or fellowship program in the U.S., you must be certified by ECFMG. You must also be certified by ECFMG if you wish to take Step 3 of the three-step United States Medical Licensing Examination. Most states in the U.S. also require ECFMG certification, among other requirements, to obtain a license to practice medicine. Hatfill claimed he passed this test but he was never certified to practice medicine within the United States. Despite this lack of American credentials, he was allowed to experiment with America’s deadliest germs.

In October 2002 and in May 2003 FBI agents went to Zimbabwe and South Africa in search of information on Hatfill trying to dig up information on his role in the Rhodesian army's biochemical weapons. The FBI reportedly had success with two teams of agents and also talked with former commanders of the Special Branch of the Selous Scouts. Peter Stiff told the agents “There was quite a lot of ZANLA guerrillas killed with toxins, maybe a couple of thousands or so.” In May 2003 the FBI spoke with Hatfill’s professors at Stellenbosch University.

SOUTH AFRICA: Hatfill wrote, “Three weeks after my graduation from medical school [April 1984], I traveled to South Africa to begin a 12-month medical internship at a teaching hospital in the Transvaal, where I studied with some of the most skilled medical doctors in the country. Near the end of my internship, I applied to serve as a medical doctor at the South African research base in Antarctica, and also applied for a training program in aviation medicine. I was accepted for both programs. I underwent training as a flight medical examiner at the South African Institute for Military Aviation Medicine as a civilian doctor (which was how all civilian flight medical examines gained certification) and also competed a 14-month period of duty as a civilian medical officer in Antarctica.”

Hatfill said he earned a Diploma in Aviation Medicine in August 1985. “Postgraduate training and medical certification course in Aviation Medicine, conducted at the Institute for Aviation Medicine, Republic of South Africa. Includes; Clinical use of a high-speed centrifuge facility, sensorimotor pathology, high altitude physiology, cold weather medicine, flight crew physical standards, ejection seat injury: Certification No. 85-104, Flight Medical Examiner.” However when a South African newspaper attempted to back up this assertion it was unable to do so. Hatfill claimed that between 1991 and 1993 he was “Consultant Flight Surgeon to 30 Squadron Air / Sea rescue unit based at Yesterplatt Air Force Base, Cape Town.” An Air Force spokesperson said 30 Squadron was amalgamated with 22 Squadron in 1991.

In July 1986 P.C. Chigwanda and Hatfill published an article titled: “Prevalence of Untreated Disease in Rural Zimbabwe.”[xxvii] In 1986 Hatfill was a medical officer in Antarctica where he was a team physician for at the South African National Antarctic Expedition. “Science Leader at the SANAE Antarctic Base in Queen Maude Land, Antarctica for a 14 month tour of duty where I performed research on pineal / hypothalamic dysfunction for the NASA, Johnson Manned Space flight Center.” When a researcher contacted the SANAE he received the following response: “Dr. Hatfill was on the 1986 / 1987 SANAE Expedition (December 1986 to March 1987) in the capacity as Team Doctor only. There is no such position as Science Leader on the expedition.” Hatfill only spent four months, not fourteen, in the Antarctica. People who had dealings with Hatfill during this Antarctic visit, described him as “committed, but unfathomable.” One expedition member said he was vague about his background. In 1986 Hatfill presented a paper entitled: “Biomedical Aspects of a Twenty Year Manned Spaceflight Exploration Program” to the National Space Council, Washington, D.C. during their 1986 design of America’s future space policy. This paper was based on his visit to the South Pole.

In March 1987 Hatfill began work on a Master’s Degree (Master of Science) in Microbial Genetics and Recombinant DNA University of Cape Town, Thesis: “The Pathogenesis of ALPV, a New Insect Picornavirus.[xxviii] Includes; Isolation of a new picornavirus, standard techniques in Molecular Biology, bacterial genetics, plasmid amplification, genetic manipulation, DNA sequencing and Transmission Electron Microscopy.” He received this Masters degree in September 1988. On October 14, 1987 Hatfill co-authored a paper entitled “The Antarctic Midwinter Syndrome-Possible Implications for Long-Duration Manned Spaceflight” and presented it to the XXIV International Congress of Aviation Medicine. Note that he lists it as the XXIV (24th) meeting. But, in actual fact, it was the Thirty-Fifth International Congress 1987 Invitations, Programs, List of Attendees – Capetown.[xxix]

Hatfill: “Two weeks after arriving back in Cape Town from Antarctica I began a Master’s Degree program in Recombinant DNA at the University of Cape Town. I also practiced medicine part-time, working evenings and weekends in a low-income black township. I maintained a special account at the local pharmacy near my medical practice in Capetown where I would send my poorer patients to get their medications. There I partially covered the cost of their drugs for them out of my own pocket. Later, I served as a weekend casualty officer treating uninsured patients (black and white) at the Conradie General Hospital in Cape Town. I finished my Master’s Degree in 1988. My Master’s thesis analyzed the pathogenesis of a polio-like virus that affects small insects. I then joined an established private practice medical group in Cape Town and worked with this group for a year. During my period of full-time practice, I developed an interest in leukemia, and in particular a special interest in therapy induced (or secondary) leukemia. This is a leukemia that develops in some patients who have undergone chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another type of cancer. The treatment causes damage to the body’s bone marrow and some patients develop an aggressive leukemia thereafter. In 1988 I enrolled for a second Master’s Degree in the radiobiology department of the University of Stellenbosch Medical School. Initially my research was conducted part-time and on weekends, and I continued full-time medical practice. The result of some of my research was later published in the British scientific journal Leukemia Research. Steven Hatfill, Ralph Kirby, Lothar Bohm, (1990) Hyperprolactinemia in acute myeloid leukemia and ectopic expression of prolactin in blast cells from a patient with M4 subtype.[xxx] Following the publication of my research, I was offered a medical residency in hematology and a small laboratory to continue my research. I left my private medical practice under a special dispensation given by the university that allowed me simultaneously to finish my second Master’s Degree, while undertaking my medical specialty in hematology. I finished my second Master’s Degree in medical biochemistry / radiation biology in 1990. Over the next three years I published a number of scientific papers while I continued to pursue my medical specialty.”

NAZI PARTY MEMBER: Hatfill’s autobiography confirmed the reports of Dr. John Michie who stated that in early 1987 or early 1988, Hatfill claimed he used the Milnerton Shooting Association's shooting range in Table View, South Africa, for training the Afrikaner Resistance Movement's elite Aquila Brigade, Terre Blanche's bodyguards. Leonard Veenendaal a committed member of the AWB was a personal bodyguard to Terre Blanche, who described Veenendaal as “my little fanatic” because of his propensity for violence. Members the AWB waged an illegal and violent campaign aimed at forcing UN peace keeping troops out of Namibia and rendering the general election impossible. In line with this objective Leonard Veenendaal and the German neo-Nazi Horst Klenz carried out a grenade attack on an UNTAG regional office at Outjo in South West Africa on August 10 1989, during which the building was “substantially” damaged and a security guard, was killed.

Terre Blanche, the worst of a rotten lot, had been selected out of 20,000 Police Officers to guard John Vorster, the State President and Prime Minister who took over for Henrick Verwoerd. Despite the fact that Vorster had been Justice Minister during the Verwored administration, this Prime Minister's views on racism became a disappointment to Terre Blanche. In 1973, with 6 other racists, one schoolteacher, two lawyers, two former policemen (Mr. Terre Blanche was one) and two farmers broke off from the Nationalist Party and founded the AWB in the small town of Heidelberg, just south of Johannesburg. From this committee of seven, the AWB emblem, “Three Sevens”, was created to resemble the swastika. His movement increased from 7 founding members to a number of 70,000 out of a White population of 3.5 million.

In 1983 the AWB announced it had formed the Blitzcommando, an action group.[xxxi] During the State of Emergency (1984 to 1986) there were many reports of AWB violence against unarmed non-whites. From 1984 the AWB began 'Volkshulpskema' schemes for the collection and distribution of food and clothes for poor Afrikaans households. At the same time, large bodies of uniformed AWB supporters began disrupting National Party meetings in small Transvaal towns, on each occasion swamping the gathering with superior numbers and taking over the rostrum. The AWB became an increasingly conspicuous feature of any right wing anti-government occasion despite its professed disapproval of party politics. The AWB was especially in opposition to the then-banned African National Congress. The ruling National Party considered the AWB to be little more than a fringe group, so while not officially endorsed, they were able to operate relatively unhindered. However in 1986, white police officers took the unprecedented step of using tear gas against Terre Blanche and the AWB when they disrupted a National Party rally. Right-wingers, under the swastika-like banner of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, battled Government supporters in fist-fights and hoisted their leader, Terre Blanche onto the stage before the police threw tear-gas canisters inside the packed hall. More tear gas was thrown outside the hall after hundreds of whites fled the building and right-wingers milled around policemen.

In November 1983, Terre Blanche and two aides received suspended jail terms for the illegal possession of weapons, including Soviet-made AK-47 assault rifles. In 1985 200 or so of Terre Blanche's followers, all bearing weapons, gathered in a barn, reportedly to discuss the possibility of an armed response to black protest. And when tensions built in 1986 between a white suburb of the town of Krugersdorp, just west of Johannesburg, and a black township nearby, armed white vigilantes from the AWB took to patrolling the streets. Hatfill denied having been a bodyguard for Terre Blanche, but he had previously denied having his photo taken with Terre Blanche so why believe him?

Dr. Michie: “I would be quite prepared to testify to what I heard (the boast that he was the combat trainer of Aquila in the Western Cape) and saw (Hatfill in Aquila uniform in the group photograph with Eugene Terre Blanche). I can also provide the names of 5 other past (Zeena Nackerdien, Suzi de Roubaix, Therina Theron) or present (Frieda Verheye, Tony Serafin) staff of the Radiobiology Laboratory who heard and saw the same. Lothar Bohm also saw the photograph, but he has been threatened by Hatfill with litigation over his email to Ralph Kirby, so I don’t think that he will talk. From what I observed of Hatfill, I am sure that he would have had multiple copies of that photograph made, to hand out to his “friends”. I was told by someone (Simon Cooper?) that he sent them out with his Xmas cards! I am sure that the FBI must have come across many “interesting” photographs when they searched his properties. A few months ago, I bumped into a married couple (ex-Pharmacology Department staff) in one of the shopping malls and was told that Hatfill had invited the husband to join him in training with the AWB/Aquila - in setting up a AWB/Aquila / Brandwag roadblock / car search training session at a camping ground in Melkbos, wearing his neo-Nazi regalia. Dave Woodsford (owner of the Lion’s Head bar at the time) told me that Hatfill used to wear his uniform when he was regaling his drinking buddies with his bs. He must have bought the uniform because he was seen wearing it on a number of occasions.

 “It suddenly struck me that the article that appeared in the Cape Argus on October 6th 1987 may have also been covered in the Afrikaans press and maybe I will find the picture of Hatfill with Eugene Terre Blanche. The Argus article was being discussed in the tearoom of the Radiobiology Laboratory when Hatfill walked in, listened for a while, and then made the boast that he was a member of Aquila/AWB and was the armed-combat trainer in the Western Cape. I knew that the part about being a armed-combat trainer was a load of crock since Keith Conroy was a member of Milnerton Shooting Association of which I was/am a member and I knew that he was the trainer. In fact, the Argus article captions on a number of the photographs identify “The Western Cape Brandwag leader, Mr. Keith C.” He ‘backed-up’ his claim a few days later by presenting us with the Black & White photographs one of which was the posed group shot of Hatfill with Terre Blanche and others. This was posted on the board of the seminar/tea room, where it remained for a long time. It was probably removed when the laboratory was due to receive visitors who might not have liked what they saw. I suspect that it went into the bin.”[xxxii]

By changing the date the photo was taken to 1983 in his autobiography Hatfill tacitly admitted that while he was living in Rhodesia but spending a lot time in South Africa, he was a member of the AWB for at least five years during its most active time.

Currently Terre Blanche served a jail sentence of six years in prison for attempted murder. Terre Blanche was found guilty in 1997 of hitting Paul Motshabi over the head and neck with a blunt object. Motshabi was in a coma for a month and suffered permanent brain damage.[xxxiii] That same year Terre Blanche was sentenced to one year in prison for assaulting petrol attendant John Ndzima in 1996.

A source that was involved in a research project with Hatfill recalled that Hatfill had been involved in a serious road accident with a black mini-bus taxi, which resulted (he claimed) in his being helicoptered to a hospital. He remarked to this colleague afterwards that: “at least I took out three of those black f----ers.” Terre Blanche served six months of the sentence and emerged from prison considerably thinner than his former self. He told the press: “Of all the prisons in the country I was taken to one in Bophuthatswana. There I was, one of four Boers (white farmers) with 400 (black) Tswanas. Correctional Services was not the least worried about my safety. I hope they will again put me in a single cell.”

Hatfill was aware of the fact that American Nazis were enamored with anthrax: “In the mid '90s, one Larry Wayne Harris, a self-proclaimed member of the Aryan Nation, made up a phony letterhead on which he requested some bubonic plague bacteria from the American-type culture collection. Ladies and gentlemen, this is the organism that causes the Black Death. As I recall, he received some of it by mail.” Another member of the Aryan Nations once bragged he had a stash of anthrax from digging up a field where cows had died of the disease in the 1950s.[xxxiv]

According to Clawson, Hatfill never made any pro-Nazi, anti-black or anti-Jewish remarks; in fact Hatfill gave money to numerous black panhandlers. Clawson said that Hatfill told him he met AWB members in South Africa but thought they were morons. He also said he met ANC members - an organization that was banned for part of the time he lived in South Africa. If Hatfill had met ANC members he would have either killed them or turned them into the police in a heartbeat.

EXPERIMENTS WITH ANTHRAX & ENVELOPES: Hatfill continued, “I treated black and white patients throughout. During this time I also gained a certification in diving medicine from Simon’s Town Navel Base near Cape Town, which offered a limited number of openings for civilian physicians.” Hatfill claimed he received a Diploma in Diving and Submarine Medicine in September 1989. “Postgraduate training and medical certification course in Underwater Medicine conducted at the Institute for Naval Medicine, Simonstown Republic South Africa. Includes; Respiratory and diving physiology, clinical rotations, the design and use of mixed gas decompression tables, medical and psychological aspects of submarine operations, review of research concerning the high-pressure nervous syndrome and anesthetic reversal: Certification No. 8801 - Diving Medical Officer / Hyperbaric Medicine.” The Maritime Institute at Simon’s Town Naval Base said he had not been a student there. A colleague reported that Hatfill had boasted to him that he had learned underwater photography with Jacques Cousteau!

Hatfill: “At no time during my stay in South Africa was I ever a member of the South African military, police or other defense institution. I was simply a medical doctor working on post-graduate studies routinely providing medical care to disadvantaged (black) patients. I also joined and served a co-treasurer for an organization devoted to improving the living conditions of destitute (black) people living in numerous shanty towns that dotted the area surrounding Cape Town.”

Despite his assertion to the contrary Hatfill was part of the South African military and completed various South African Defense Force military-medical assignments, serving as a medical officer, while obtaining three separate master's degrees.

While Hatfill was in South Africa work was being done that involved anthrax being sent through the mail. During the Truth and Reconciliation Hearings in South Africa the following testimony was recorded regarding the projects that were undertaken at Roodeplaat: The prosecutor Mr. Vally asked what experiments were conducted with Anthrax? Dr. Mike Odendaal responded, “There's one, on June 9, 1989, Spore En Brief. Those were Anthrax spores and they were supposedly put onto the glue part of the envelope. I did not prepare the envelope, but I provided the spores.” Odendaal said he was not aware what they were going to be used for and was asked, “Were you aware whether it could be done or not, whether spores could be put onto the gum of an envelope?” and he answered, “I suppose it could be done, but I don't think it's a very good idea to immobilize or to incapacitate someone, because I doubt whether it will be effective. I've got my doubts [whether it would kill someone], but strictly speaking, it could happen depending on many factors. I don't think it would be detectable, no.[xxxv] Odendaal was the former head of the Department of Microbiology, Roodeplaat Research Laboratories from 1984 to 1992.

Hatfill wrote, “I continued my medical specialty training in hematology and continued my research into therapy induced leukemia throughout the early 90’s. I also earned another Master’s Degree, this one in the field hematology / pathology.” Hatfill gained a Master of Science degree at the University of Stellenbosch's medical school in 1990 while working in the radiobiology laboratory in the department of radiation oncology. His resume reads: “Master’s Degree (Master Science) in Medical Biochemistry / Radiation Biology (December 1990). Research Fellowship University of Stellenbosch Medical School, Radiobiology Laboratory. Includes; cell culture, colony culture assay, immunocytochemistry, experimental animal care and drug pharmacokinetics, metabolite analysis, secondary neutron generation at the Faure National Accelerator center.”

In 1990 Hatfill and Ralph Kirby published a paper entitled: “Hybridization studies to localize a new insect picornavirus in aphid tissue sections.”[xxxvi] Professor Ralph Kirby of Rhodes University's Department of Microbiology said he could not believe Hatfill was behind the anthrax attacks. Kirby said he and Hatfill had worked together at Rhodes on several research projects in the early 1990s. “With my personal knowledge of him, he doesn't fit the profile. He fits the profile of what the FBI are looking for, but their are about or 30 other people that fit that profile,” said Kirby. Hatfill's passion was Ebola. “He collected samples from the indigenous areas where the disease comes from in North and Central Africa,” he said.

In October 1990, the South African Armed Forces Journal ran an article by Hatfill entitled “Military health strategy during the global AIDS pandemic” that pointed out that since the U.S. military tested recruits for AIDS so should the South African military.[xxxvii] In 1994 Hatfill claimed he was a member of the Advisory panel on AIDS of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The Weekly Mail and Guardian reported that SADF military officials used the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) facilities to obtain and develop different strains of germs, some of which were highly toxic to humans.[xxxviii]

Hatfill related: “From 1987 to 1990, I continued advanced degree studies and served as Emergency Medical Officer for the Conradie General Hospital, Cape Town. Surgical experience includes trauma management, burns with skin graft management, common thoracic and abdominal emergencies, and open/closed fracture reductions. I have performed over 40 Cesarean sections, several hundred normal vaginal deliveries, and administered over 400 general anesthetics during training and medical practice. Assigned to the 2nd Medical Battalion (Territorial Army Reserve) South African Defense Force. I hold certifications in Diving and Submarine Medicine and Aviation Medicine.” He claimed to have served a rotating general internship in medicine, pediatrics, surgery, obstetrics / gynecology, accident and emergency.

An official of the Western Cape provincial health authority, after consultation with hospital authorities, reports that Hatfill performed no obstetrical procedures at Conradie Hospital and, in fact, appears to have had no association at all with that hospital. Dr. Steven Dresch reported: “Concerning Steven Hatfill's claims that he held the post of Emergency Medical Officer at Conradie Hospital (1987- 1990) and that his University of Stellenbosch “M. Medicine / Board Certification in Hematopathology (June 1993)” included “clinical rotations through coagulation / homeostasis, hemolytic and platelet disorders, immunohematology and blood transfusion medicine, hematology-oncology and the bone marrow transplantation unit (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town),” Hatfill applied for a registrar post at Groote Schuur Hospital in 1993, but never took up the post.

Note how vague the part of his autobiography is where he claims to like Black Africans. He did not name the organization devoted to improving the lives of poor blacks did he? We are supposed to take him at his word. It is interesting to note that the AWB had a program to feed and house impoverished Afrikaners at this time.

On July 7, 1991 Hatfill authored a paper entitled “Thalidomide Induced Apoptosis in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia” for the XII South African Pathology Congress. In 1991 Hatfill and Professor Lothar Bohm published a paper titled “Morphological differentiation of K562 Leukemia cells induced by Thalidomide.” Lothar Bohm, professor of medicine at Stellenbosch who leads the Department of Radiation Oncology where Hatfill worked said, “He was unpopular because he just did not respect other people's lives and their work and their needs in the lab,” said. “He was the sort of person who would go in the labs late at night at take pieces of equipment without asking.” The FBI accompanied by a South African detective interviewed Dr. Bohm at his house in May 2003. They wanted to know such things as whether he knew where Hatfill went to out of working hours, did he have any connection with Project Coast, etc.

The paper stated, “The lineage and state of differentiation of cells in the mammalian haemopoietic [formation of blood cellular components] compartment is associated with specific patterns of homeobox gene expression [a DNA sequence found within the genes that are involved in the regulation of the development of plants, fungi and animals].[xxxix] Agents which influence homeobox gene expression are thus of great interest in the study of human leukemias. Retinoic acid has direct regulatory actions on homeobox gene transcription[xl] and can induce select human leukemia cell lines to undergo terminal differentiation [loose their nuclei but remain functional] in vitro.[xli] Retinoic acid is also a known teratogen for vertebrate fetal limb-bud development. The drug Thalidomide[xlii] duplicates some of the teratogenic effects. To investigate Thalidomide for other retinoid-like effects, we exposed cultures of human leukemia K562 cells to the metabolites generated in a Thalidomide hepatic-microsomal enzyme drug metabolizing system.[xliii] Here we report evidence that a single 2 h pulse-exposure to Thalidomide metabolites induces K562 cells to undergo morphological differentiation in vitro. We also demonstrate a significant cytotoxic [the quality of being toxic to cells] effect for these metabolites.”

Thalidomide was originally marketed as a sedative in 1954. However, in 1961 it was quickly withdrawn from distribution when its teratogenic properties were discovered - it caused numerous birth defects when it was used as a tranquillizer for pregnant women and children were born without limbs. In 1994, speculation that thalidomide teratogenicity is linked to the repression of angiogenesis [the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones] spawned a new wave of clinical investigations that expanded the use of thalidomide for the treatment of various malignancies, including multiple myeloma, melanoma, renal-cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer.

Hatfill was ahead of his time in 1991 and must be given credit for finding an innovative use for Thalidomide. The only problem was that he did not perform the experiment that would verify his theory. As usual Hatfill was so convinced he was right he only pretended to do the lab work. Other scientists could not reproduce it until they refined Hatfill’s technique. Irreproducible experiments do not go over well in the scientific world. On September 17, 1993, Lothar Bohm realized Hatfill never performed this experiment that was for his Master’s Thesis. Böhm, subsequent to the awarding of the Master’s wrote this email to Hatfill’s Ph.D. supervisor (Ralph Kirby) at Rhodes University to warn him that he suspected that Hatfill had made up data/results which were used in two Scientific/Medical publications and his Master’s.

“Dear Ralph: Don Hendry gave me your address. Two problems here: Our new 560 bp PCR product still does not give continuous melts. In touch with DIAGEN it turns out that the handbook refers to a method called G-clamping to stabilize DNA and generate decent Y-fragments. Regrettably neither Steven Hatfill nor you came up with this solution. Steven has been seeing our poor melts for the last 9 months. We are rather disappointed if not to say PISSED OFF with so much ignorance, carelessness and indifference…nine months of time plus 4000 odd Rand wasted. You are both DEEP in our memory. A Japanese worker has problems in reproducing the Thalidomide work on K562. After some correspondence relating to buffers and drug metabolism using S-9 fraction he still cannot do it. When I discussed the problem with Steven it became clear that he could not have done the experiment as his handling of the S-9 fraction indicated total confusion. Taking these observations and the wonderful TGE melt mitochondrial DNA referred to in the Lancet paper it also transpires that the experiment could not have been done by Steven Hatfill because essential parts of the TGE machine accessories were still unopened. It goes to show that Hatfill takes great liberties with the truth. I think you may wish to be on guard when you assess his Ph.D. thesis not to risk a scandal. I can only pray that the Japanese worker is not going to blow the whistle-but with increasing interest in Thalidomide somebody else might. I find it utterly distasteful and unprofessional to practice science in this way and I am reassessing my position regarding Steven Hatfill and asking you again for advice. Lothar Bohm[xliv]

In September 2003 Bohm said, “He understands Hatfill's research has now been successfully duplicated.” Judging from how many times it is cited in the leukemia – Thalidomide literature it must have been reproduced at some time or another. In an email from Hatfill Bohm was threatened with a lawsuit over recordings journalists had made of his views on Hatfill over the email he sent to Ralph Kirby. The man who exposed Hatfill as a Nazi, Dr. John Michie stated: “Bohm is not comfortable that his association with Hatfill has become public. He is trying to cover his back. Hatfill should have been asked to substantiate his claim. When he was alerted to Hatfill's association with Amerithrax in an email from Zeena Nackerdien, he told Tony Serafin and myself and probably others that he had suspected that Hatfill had cooked the books, since a Japanese researcher couldn't reproduce the thalidomide research. Ironically, that person, Yuichi Hashimoto, has cited the thalidomide work. Therina Theron who was his Masters of Science / Ph.D. student, also couldn't reproduce the thalidomide research. She couldn't get the TGE apparatus to work - the supplier of the equipment was called in and he pointed out that the electrodes were incorrectly wired by Hatfill, not Therina and that essential parts had not even been unpacked.”

 Dr. Michie reported, “One glaring anomaly that I picked up was that Hatfill states in his thesis and in the Leukemia Research article that he dissolved both thalidomide and TCPO in aqueous solutions. If you look up the properties of these two substances in the Merck Index, you will find that they are “sparingly” soluble in water…they have to be dissolved in certain organic solvents such as dioxane.” The researcher who attempted to duplicate Hatfill’s experiment, Yuichi Hashimoto is a Professor at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences at the University of Tokyo. It is unclear if where he eventually published the paper on the confirmed Hatfill’s experiment but he did come to the conclusion that Thalidomide is valuable in the treatment of leukemia. Thalidomide is now being used to treat certain forms of Leukemia and Hatfill is given credit for his pioneering work: “In vitro data supporting other direct effects of thalidomide include the work of Hatfill et. al. A single 2-hour pulse-exposure of thalidomide metabolites induced morphologic differentiation of human leukemia cell line K562. Thalidomide has been noted to inhibit TNF-alpha production by stimulated lymphocytes.”[xlv]

On April 10, 1991 Hatfill authored a paper entitled “Design Considerations for a NASA Biobehavioral Research Laboratory in Antarctica for the NASA Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.” He also submitted to the South African Pathology Conference in July 1991, “Thalidomide Induced Apoptosis in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.” In 1991 Steven J. Hatfill published “Immuno-cytochemical identification of nuclear estrogen receptors in human acute myeloid leukemia.”[xlvi] From 1991-1994 Hatfill was supervisor for two Masters Degree Candidates at the University of Stellenbosch.

In 1992 Hatfill and three other hematologists authored a paper “Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Myelodysplastic Syndrome.” Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not function normally and not enough normal blood cells are made. They are fatal disorders that lead to death either through bone marrow failure or by transformation to leukemia.[xlvii] Hatfill was a Guest Lecturer at the National Cancer Institute in 1992 and received a travel grant award from the Medical Research Council (UK) in 1992, 1993. From 1992 - 1994 Hatfill said that he taught Undergraduate Hematology at the University of Stellenbosch Medical School.

In 1992 Hatfill published “Apoptotic megakaryocyte dysplasia in the myelodysplastic syndromes.”[xlviii] In August of 1992 Hatfill and Ralph Kirby published “Mitochondrial mutations in the myelodysplastic syndrome.”[xlix] In July 1992 he authored a paper entitled “Possible Risks for Leukemia Induction by Chronic Exposure to Low-Dose VZE Radiation During Long-Duration Space Missions for the Lunar/Mars Exploration Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.” In 1993, Hatfill claimed to have served as Chairman of the Experimental Biology Group (Republic of South Africa) and claimed to have been a member of the Blood Transfusion Utilization Committee - Tygerberg Medical Center. The Experimental Biology Group has no record of Hatfill’s chairmanship. Tygerberg’s Blood Transfusion Committee also found no traces of Hatfill. In 1993 Hatfill and Ralph Kirby, published: “A role for mitochondrial DNA in the pathogenesis of radiation induced MDS and secondary leukemia.”[l]

Hatfill was then employed as a medical doctor in the Department of Hematology, where he completed his MS. He received board certification while studying for a doctoral degree, and practicing in a South African clinic. Hatfill studied for Board certification in Hematological Pathology from June 1993 to August 1994. His resume read: “Master of Medical Science / Board Certification in Hemato-pathology (June 1993).” Hatfill: “I was a three-year resident specialist training in blood and bone marrow disorders at the University of Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa. I performed clinical rotations through coagulation homeostasis, hemolytic and platelet disorders, immuno-hematology and blood transfusion medicine, hematology-oncology and the bone marrow transplantation unit at the Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. I performed pathology rotations through forensic, hematology, and chemical pathology toxicology. I established a de-novo departmental molecular hematology laboratory for Ig / TCR (T Cell Receptor) rearrangement studies and directed this laboratory, during my medical residency training from 1991 through 1993 and in 1994. External funding grants came from Ames Diagnostics and Amersham, UK.” Hatfill alleged he headed the molecular hematology laboratory on the Tygerberg campus of the University of Stellenbosch between 1991 and 1993. A spokesperson says he was a clinical assistant.

HATFILL’S BOGUS DOCTORATE DEGREE: Hatfill claimed to have completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Oxford University in South Africa in 1992. He claimed he earned a doctorate in “Molecular Cell Biology/Biochemistry” from Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. “Ph.D. Degree in Molecular Cell Biology (August 1994). Completed by experimental work, thesis, Rhodes University, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology.” External Thesis Examiners were listed as the Argonne National Laboratory (USA) and NASA Center for Special Studies, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (USA). “Thesis demonstrated mitochondrial DNA topology changes in high LET radiation-induced MDS and leukemia, as a possible basis for biological dissymmetry.” This was a paper Hatfill had already published.

Hatfill was a Senior Clinical Scientist at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Pathology Oxford University, England from 1994 to 1995 and claimed he was a member of the Royal Society of Medicine, London. The Royal Society of Medicine had no record of this.[li] Hatfill then faked a reference from the distinguished Oxford Professor James O. D. McGee to apply for his next job back in the United States. One version of his c. v. claimed he had a medical degree from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, a body that doesn't exist. Another said his medical degree was gained at Edinburgh in 1984. Fiona Sinclair, membership administrator for the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, stated: “A full search of our records has been conducted, both in Edinburgh and in Glasgow, and there is no record of Dr Steven Jay Hatfill having obtained any college qualification. We have no records of Dr. Hatfill at all.” Hatfill claimed to have been a member of an AIDS advisory panel organized through the Council for Scientific Industrial Research on AIDS in 1994. The Council for Scientific Industrial Research never convened an AIDS advisory panel. Hatfill: “Following the completion of my medical specialty training and the submission of my PhD. thesis in 1994 I returned to the United States. I stayed at my parents’ horse farm in Florida, painted horse barns, and briefly relaxed from the hectic pace I had maintained for almost two decades. Six months later I traveled to England for a post-doctoral position at Oxford University where I spent a year doing cancer research as a senior clinical scientist.” On December 5, 1994 Hatfill and Ralph Kirby presented an abstracted entitled Mitochondrial DNA Length Polymorphism in MDS at the 36th Annual Meeting, American Society of Hematology.

BACK TO THE UNITED STATES: When Hatfill returned to the United States in 1994, he took a research fellowship at the NIH in Bethesda, Maryland and resumed his research in diseases of the blood. Post-doctoral fellowships at the National Institutes of Health are given to those who have expertise in a given area, and an awarded PhD degree is one piece of evidence that the data underlying the researcher's thesis has undergone some type of review and meets a certain standard. Awarding a fellowship to someone who has misrepresented a degree is serious for a position that involves scientific research. It goes to the integrity of the researcher.

Hatfill’s autobiography stated, “Following the completion of my medical specialty training and the submission of my PhD. thesis in 1994, I returned to the United States.” According to Rhodes University Registrar Stephen Fourie, Hatfill was registered as a doctoral candidate from 1992 to 1994 and submitted a thesis, but he was never given the degree. Pat Clawson said that Hatfill thought he got the degree in 1994. In 1995 Hatfill told the NIH he had the degree. An NIH official said the agency has what appears to be a photocopy of a doctoral degree from Rhodes bearing Hatfill's name, certified as authentic by a British law firm. This law firm, Ferguson and Bricknell reported: “The copy Rhodes University D. Phil certificate [reprinted in this book] does appear to be a certified copy, made at our Headington office (situated just around the corner from the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford). We note that the [book] states that the document was 'certified as authentic by a British law firm'. The effect of the Solicitor's certificate in this case is to confirm that the photocopy is a true copy of the document from which it is taken. The original document is not certified as authentic by this firm.” He still claimed the degree in 1997 but sometime between 1997 and 1999 (after he had obtained jobs at NIH and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases - USAMRIID) he corrected his error when he realized that he might loose his job if this falsification was discovered. In a 1999 resume, the reference has changed from “Ph.D. Degree” to “Ph.D. Thesis.”

Hatfill received an National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intramural Research Training Award Fellow, September 1995 to September 1996, September 1996 to September 1997, approved for September 1997 to September 1998, salary between $40k and $43k. From December 11, 1995 to December 14, 1995 Hatfill presented an abstract entitled HIV Infection in Experimental Histoculture. Annual Meeting, American Society for Cell Biology. In 1995 Hatfill published Clinical Significance of the Malfunction of the CD44 Locus in Malignancy.[lii] Hatfill had this chronology of events; “In 1996 I received a research fellowship at the National Institutes for Health. As a member of the NASA/NIH Center for Advanced Tissue Culture staff I worked on a newly discovered technique for the culture of explanted human tissues. The technique was in the process of being proven as a test tube model for AIDS treatment and held promise for a number of other areas of medical research as well. At the same time I attended classes and studied part time for the NIH core course in clinical research designed to teach investigators the proper research methods for testing new drug and therapy effectiveness. The part time course took a year to complete. The wonderful research team I was a part of at NIH was highly productive and we published numerous papers demonstrating the value of our technique for solid tumor cancer studies of the lung, prostate and salivary gland.”

In 1996 Hatfill published a paper entitled an Epidemiological Study of Serious Haematological Diseases in the Pofadder Area. In the early 1980’s the South African Atomic Energy Corporation had sampled groundwater from a number of boreholes in the Pofadder area in the North Western Cape as part of a geological programme. Hydrochemical analyses indicated that certain aquifers contained relatively high concentrations of uranium, arsenic and fluoride as well as elevated levels of radioactivity. The departments of Internal Medicine and Community Health of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Stellenbosch noted that a number of cases of people suffering from hematological anomalies have been reported from the area around Pofadder. These hematological values differed from the normal ranges to a significant extent. Hatfill’s paper determined that a correlation existed between the contamination and increased blood diseases.[liii]

From June 25, 1996 to June 27, 1996 Hatfill presented a paper on “Experimental HIV Infection in a NASA Designed RWV Lymphoid Tissue Bioreactor” at the NASA Symposium on Cell Biology and Protein Crystal growth, International Congress for In-Vitro Biology. That same year Hatfill published: “In-vitro Maintenance of Normal and Pathological Human Salivary Gland Tissue in a NASA Designed Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor.”[liv]

The fluid-filled rotating wall vessel bioreactor is a recently developed cell culture device that is able to successfully integrate cell-cell and cell-matrix co-localization and three-dimensional interaction with excellent low-shear mass transfer of nutrients and wastes, without sacrificing one parameter for the other. Designed at the Johnson Manned Spaceflight Center, the RWV bioreactor consists of a cylindrical growth chamber that contains an inner co-rotating cylinder with a gas exchange membrane.[lv]

In July 1996 Hatfill took a course in Biology of Disease Vectors: “Postgraduate training conducted at the Arbovirus Infectious Disease Research Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) - Rocky Mountain Laboratory. Includes; Vector biology, Dengue, VEE, and other Mosquito / Tick Born Diseases, Plague, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Trypanosomiasis. Field collection and Identification of Insect Vectors, Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Vector-born Disease.” Hatfill explained, “I then turned my attention to human bone marrow and to research involving infection disease agents, including the infectious agent causing Lyme disease and a strain of malaria that infects chickens. Also about this time I started focusing professionally on emerging viral infectious disease. These are natural but rare or previously unknown diseases that suddenly emerge in a given human population, cause great damage then rapidly disappear. The 1918 flu pandemic is one example, as is the Ebola virus. Like many other scientists I had recently read the book The Hot Zone about the Ebola virus outbreak in Reston, Virginia, which caused disease only in monkeys and not humans. Coincidently, a few weeks later Dr. Mike Bray, a researcher from the United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) gave a talk at NIH about a mouse adapted strain of the Ebola virus. I spoke with Dr. Bray afterwards and we agreed to a joint collaboration to see if the Ebola virus could be cultured in the new tissue culture system my colleagues and I were working on. If it could we could use the technique to culture the virus in both human and monkey tissues in an attempt to see how the infection progressed in these different tissues. It might also permit us to use the technique as a replacement for the monkey and other animal models developed to study the disease. The Ebola virus can be safely handled only within the special ‘space suit’ containment labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland, where I did not work. I made the appropriate arrangements to transfer loaded tissue bioreactors from NIH to Fort Detrick. There they were taken into the high containment facility and experiments safely performed by resident USAMRIID scientists, not including myself. As this work was progressing I became increasingly aware of the potential public health risk caused by the release of a virulent virus in a densely populated area. The more I learned about biological warfare the more alarmed I became about this potential threat. Several anthrax hoaxes had by then been described in the media, with some legislation being passed by Congress. (Nunn-Lugar Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996) to assist in the training of first responders (i.e. fire and police) to manage potential terrorist attacks similar to the Sarin nerve agent attack by Japanese terrorists on the Tokyo subway.”

From January 22, 1997 to January 26, 1997 Hatfill presented an abstract entitled “Viral Factors Determining the Course of HIV Infection in Human Lymphoid Tissue In-Vitro” at the 4th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. From March 1 to 7, 1997 Hatfill presented an abstract entitled “Long-Term In-Vitro Maintenance of Histologically Intact Human Prostate Tissue in a NASA Designed Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor” at the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology Congress. In June 1997 Hatfill took a Core Course in Human Clinical Research, from the National Institute of Health which was a ten month intensive course in basic epidemiological methods and design of clinical research, regulations involving human subjects research, monitoring patient oriented research, the role of the Institutional Review Board, statistical data analysis and research study funding. Conducted at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. From June 22, 1997 to June 26, 1997 Hatfill presented a paper entitled “Human Lymphoid Tissue for In-Vitro Anti-HIV Drug Testing” at the 2d Joint Conference of the Strategic Program for Innovative Research on AIDS Treatment and the National Cooperative Drug Discovery group for the Treatment of HIV Infection in Vienna, Virginia.

In 1998 Hatfill co-authored “Maintenance of Human Prostate Tissue Without Exogenous Hormonal Support in a NASA Designed Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor (RWV)” for the Journal of Urolology that was described as being “in press”. That year Hatfill prepared a manuscript titled “In-vitro Generation of Kaposi Sarcoma Lesions by HHV-8 in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor.” Hatfill also prepared a manuscript titled “In-vitro Amplification and Identification of Lyme Disease in Human Tissue Biopsies Cultured in the NASA RWV Bioreactor.” A paper on this subject was presented at the U.S. and Canadian Academy of Pathologists Annual Meeting, Boston, 1998. That year Hatfill[lvi] prepared a manuscript titled “Tissue Explant Culture in the NASA RWV Bioreactor: A Possible Universal Culture System for Infectious Human Pathogens.” Hatfill and Peter Jahrling, made progress on a paper titled “Pathogenic Differences Between Ebola Reston and Ebola Zaire in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor.”

 “Experiment Design: Attempts will be made to culture a variety of infectious pathogen types in the same simple media (RPMI-1640, 15% FCS) containing human tonsil tissue explants maintained in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor. In addition, a human liver and epithelial tissue equivalent will be formulated from established cells lines grown on cytodex microcarrier beads. These will be co-cultured with the tonsil explants. Known pathogens which have proved to be difficult to isolate by normal protocols, will be introduced into the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor culture media and allowed to incubate with the tissue and tissue equivalents for two weeks.

“Aim of Experiments: To demonstrate the potential ability of the RWV bioreactor to act as a universal pathogen culture system for the primary isolation of previously unrecognized pathogens during outbreaks of emerging disease. By demonstrating the ability of the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor to culture a variety of known pathogens of different classification, i.e. RNA viruses, Retroviruses, DNA viruses, Parasites, Spirochete bacteria, etc., we hope to demonstrate the applicability of the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor system for de novo [anew] primary pathogen isolation protocols. At present, the de novo isolation of previously unknown or unrecognized emerging disease pathogens requires elucidating the proper culture media or permissive cell line applicable for growth of the pathogenic agent in culture. A few examples serve to illustrate the difficulty inherent in this process using conventional technology. The 1970’s outbreak of Legionaries Disease required for months to identify the causative agent as a bacterium. The HIV-1 retrovirus required over 2 years to isolate and the 1993 outbreak of Myuro Canyon disease in the four-corners region of the United States took seven weeks to grow this Hantavirus in culture. Clearly these timelines are unacceptable with respect to many public health threat scenarios for emerging disease agents. By utilizing the ability of the RWV to maintain a normal three-dimensional cytoarchitecture and microenvironment for a number of tissues, the possibility of using human tissue explants for primary pathogen isolation becomes a distinct possibility.

“Preliminary Results: As previously described, the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor has demonstrated its ability to culture the HIV-1 virus. In addition, the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor has now demonstrated the ability to culture and amplify the Ebola virus in human tonsil tissue explants.

“Plans: The Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor will be used in an attempt to culture Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. This organism is notorious for its resistance to culture by conventional methods. In conjunction with assistance from the Armed Forces Institute for Pathology, the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor system will be used to culture Legionnaires Disease. The USAMRIID will also attempt to culture Hantavirus[lvii] (Muryo Canyon agent) in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor.”

FORT DETRICK: From September 18, 1997 to September 18, 1998, Hatfill was a Senior Research Associate, who worked on developing a vaccine for the deadly Ebola virus, among other projects, at Fort Detrick. Ebola, an untreatable virus rapidly kills 80% to 90% of the humans it infects, and no one knows where it lurks in the years between its small-scale outbreaks, up to now confined to central Africa. Scientists in the former Soviet Union reportedly weaponized the virus. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) listed Ebola as a “select agent” in 1996, meaning that at least three antiterrorism statutes regulate it. Ebola is also one of the potential bioterrorism agents now targeted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

 Hatfill's work was the result of a two-year fellowship sponsored by the National Research Council. On September 4, 1997 his status as an Intramural Research Training Award Fellow had been replaced by an appointment as a Special Volunteer, September 1997 to September 1998. His salary $57.6k (20 hours per week work time?) was paid by the Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Fort Detrick, Maryland. At Fort Detrick, Hatfill never had nor needed security clearance, according to Chuck Dasey, a spokesman for the facility. Hatfill was not an official employee of USAMRIID - which would have required a mandatory national agency security check but was a Special Volunteer from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, vouched for by its Director, Arthur S. Levine. In 1998 Hatfill co-authored a paper entitled, “Pathological differences between Ebola Reston and Ebola Zaire in the NASA RWV Bioreactor.” This was followed by “Cidofovir treatment for Smallpox and Monkeypox orthopoxvirus infections” in preparation.

Hatfill wrote, “In 1997 I was offered a National Research Council position at USAMRIID at Fort Detrick. My task was to refine the tissue culture system so as to compare Ebola infection in human and animal tissues and (as a hematologist) to dissect the bleeding disorder, which the disease caused in the Ebola animal models of human disease. The work at USAMRIID was exciting but dangerous. It was difficult to work with the tissue culture system and the Ebola virus in the space suit, even more difficult to work with the small mice and guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were the worst because they were large enough to be difficult to hold still while injecting the virus. One careless mistake or a bit of inattention and a simple needle stick injury would be translated into a slow and painful death for a disease for which there was no vaccine and no cure. It had happened before with other viral agents and researchers in other centers. I believe that researchers in this field are unsung heroes. I gave a final public lecture on the potential threat of biological terrorism shortly after I started work at USAMRIID. The next day I was called into the Commander’s office and told no longer to speak publicly without official permission. The hypothetical attack in my talk had been on the White House, and the Secret Service was upset. The Commander was a man I greatly respected, as well as my boss, and his objection was more than sufficient to end my brief tour on the public lecture circuit discussing potential biological terrorism scenarios without first obtaining official permission from USAMRIID. A small spot on my lung caused by previous exposure to tuberculosis in Africa meant that I could not gain respiratory clearance until the medical clinic at USAMRIID was sure that the spot was not active. The classical HEAF test for diagnosing this was not possible because I had received several previous vaccinations against tuberculosis while overseas. The whole process took 6 or 7 months during which time I concentrated on the Ebola work. By the time my initial vaccinations had been completed, the issue of the destruction of the last remaining research quantities of smallpox at the CDC in Atlanta was the question of the day. Proponents for destroying the small research quantities of the smallpox virus at the CDC claimed there was no animal model to study the disease. The group I was attached to at USAMRIID had developed an animal model of a related virus called Monkeypox. My boss put me to work on an animal study designed to show that the anti-viral drug Cidofovir could be used to treat Monkeypox in animals, and hence smallpox in humans. After about a year at USAMRIID I began to receive the normal series of vaccinations against anthrax. This was required for anyone working as I was, in building 1412 where the anthrax studies were also being done. Although my primary work occurred in another area, everyone had to be vaccinated against anthrax. A security computer kept track of where anyone in the main building or in building 1412 were located. Who entered, where, when and for how long, were logged in. This information is presumably available today. The bacteriology division kept pretty much to themselves and as I did not work on anthrax, I had no idea where the anthrax was stored, nor did I know which strain of anthrax was in use.” Hatfill’s advisor at USAMRIID, John Huggins stated “USAMRIID’s biocontainment facilities stored wet spore anthrax – not the dry, aerosolized kind used in the attacks – but Hatfill neither knew where it was stored nor had access to the secure facilities in which it was studied. USAMRIID research personnel were given access only to labs in which they worked – and for Hatfill that was only the virology lab.”[lviii] Dr. Huggins also testified that Dr. Hatfill never worked with anthrax at USAMRIID and that after Dr. Hatfill left USAMRIID in September 1999 he would have had absolutely no access to any of USAMRIID’s biocontainment facilities.[lix] This implies that before he left he had access.

Hatfill continued, “My role has expanded to include research on anti-viral therapeutics for orthopoxvirus and filovirus infections using rodent and non-human primate models. I am the primary civilian consultant to the Aeromedical Isolation team at USAMRIID, where I participate in field training exercises, provide training seminars, and have significantly upgraded the AIT's capability for in-flight patient monitoring. I have participated in the development of an advanced human organ culture system for infectious disease research at USAMRIID. This was used to document tropic differences between Reston Ebola and Zaire strains. Concurrent work outside of USAMRIID includes the historical development and theoretical applications of Caulder's equations/tables.[lx]

Hatfill took a Biosafety Level 4 Course, USAMRIID in September 1997 during which he was certified training in the ILC Dover Chemturion encapsulating suit and certification / clearance to operate in a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) environment for research on exotic viral pathogens (Ebola, Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever). Respiratory and medical clearance to conduct research on Biosafety Level 3 pathogens (Plague, Anthrax, and Monkeypox). According to Mark Buller, a St. Louis University professor who is currently studying how terrorists could use genetic engineering to enhance poxviruses, Monkeypox is easier to obtain and produce than smallpox. Hatfill could have modified Monkeypox viruses and created a previously unseen strain of biological weapon, however, this was not his goal.[lxi]

On October 8, 1997 Hatfill gave another briefing at the Defense Special Weapons Agency. In October 1997 Hatfill studied the Management of Biological Warfare Casualties at the USAMRIID. “Full course for medical and incident consequence management of personnel exposure to Anthrax, Tularemia,[lxii] Plague, VEE,[lxiii] Orthopoxvirus (Smallpox), Filovirus (Ebola, Marburg and Reston virii), and the SEB,[lxiv] BOTOX (botulinum toxin) and Ricin biological toxins.”

In 1997 Hatfill was an Instructor SAIC Weapons of Mass Destruction Domestic Preparedness Hospital Provider Course. Hatfill designed programs and training equipment for Navy Seals, and SAIC colleagues say he often sat at his desk designing mock bioterror training devices, including a backpack that could be used by enemies to spray germs on the battlefield. He trained CIA agents in counter-proliferation, and shuttled to U.S. embassies abroad to teach bioterrorism preparedness. In 1997 Hatfill, published “Tissue Culture in Microgravity.”[lxv] That same year Hatfill published “Lymphocyte Trafficking and HIV Infection of Human Lymphoid Tissue in a RWV Bioreactor.”[lxvi] Although Hatfill’s primary expertise at SAIC – as in his previous laboratory positions – was virology, he filled in for other instructors and taught about biological weapons.[lxvii] On November 18, 1997 Hatfill gave a briefing to SHIELD at the U.S. State Department.

On May 21, 1998 Hatfill, and Jerome Hauer then New York City's emergency preparedness director spoke on Biological Terrorism, at a Council on Foreign Relations, Special Meeting in New York City. His speech was entitled “Building a 'Biobomb': Terrorist Challenge and U.S. Response.”[lxviii] At this seminar he demonstrated one of his favorite bioterrorism scenarios: a terrorist using a wheelchair to sneak past White House security with a biological agent. Hauer was appalled. After the presentation, he says, he called Hatfill aside and told him he "had gone too far. It was too detailed, too specific to go into in a public forum." Hatfill listened, Hauer says, but shrugged it off. Hatfill, “Jerome Hauer was not appalled. I had invited Jerome Hauer to speak with me at the Council on Foreign Relations, considering at the time he was in charge of emergency medical preparedness. This sounds like complete nonsense. He didn’t pull me aside and say I had gone too far or too detailed or too specific. We did have a few chats about an unclassified subject.”

On June 16, 1998 Hatfill lectured at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies / George Washington University Terrorism Studies Group - Conference on Biological Terrorism Emerging Threats of Biological Terrorism: Recent Developments. The title of his lecture was “Flexible and Rapid Mass Casualty Redistribution Following a Large Area Coverage Biological or Chemical Incident.” Hatfill showed slides of anthrax victims and delivered this lecture while Professor Brenner moderated:

 “We've heard the threat today from Dr. Kenneth Alibek, [who headed the Soviet Union’s biological weapons program during its peak years before defecting to the United States in 1992] Dr. William Patrick, and Dr. John Huggins for biological threats of biological terrorism. We've heard conventional countermeasures. We've heard of a number of programs of advanced countermeasures. It now becomes necessary to discuss worst-case scenarios and that concerns ways of management, or possible ways of management, of large areas covered by biological agent. I've been working with Brigadier General Third Army Medical Command in the United States Army Reserve to try to develop a system for flexible and rapid transportation of mass casualties from a contaminated area to a rear area while maintaining life support and critical care functions for the casualties.

“When we're dealing with a large area of coverage event, this can be exceedingly complex. A single area of a city may be affected or multiple areas of the city at the same time or closely thereafter, and terrorists may be involved with both chemical weapon releases, as well as with the biological agent. One of the most dramatic open source experiments that have been described for a large area of coverage occurred on September 21, 1950, where a naval vessel did an open air simulation test releasing spores of the same size and weight as anthrax, but nonpathogenic to humans, over the city of San Francisco. This was conducted off a naval vessel two miles offshore and the results are illustrated in this diagram. If this had occurred with actual anthrax, there's a possibility that several hundred thousand people could have contracted a fatal pulmonary infection. These types of dispersal scenarios in the most part are covert. There's no indication that a biological agent release has occurred until the incubation period for the particular disease has expired. This is a typical case history. An emergency department, normal operations and patients begin to appear. The terrorist event has occurred the week before. The incubation period for the agent is now open and these previously healthy individuals start coming in requiring rapid intensive care including mechanical life support, mechanical ventilation. This is a slide of inhalational anthrax. We only have a few hours once predominantly respiratory symptoms develop. The patient needs to be intubated; they need to be mechanically ventilated. Their blood pressure needs to be supported with medications.

“Some coetaneous cases may appear. This is coetaneous anthrax, the vegetative bacteria multiplying in the blood stream and the tissues release a number of toxins, with a massive edema, malignant edema. Over 50 percent of those exposed to the agent plume end up with inhalation anthrax. Over 50 percent of the inhalation anthrax victims develop cases associated with hemorrhagic meningitis. This is the membrane covering the brain. A great deal of these patients will be brought in as casualties probably all having epileptic fits. Surrounding area and surface contamination is possible as well as intestinal cases may appear. This is hemorrhagic infection of the lymph nodes and intestines and a small destruction section of the bowel through disruption of his blood supply.

“Until recently, the medical trains would not have been sufficient for the mass evacuation of casualties from a high concentration attack area to rear definitive area treatments. Recently, Northrop Grumman has come out with a specialized stretcher. This is called LSTT stretcher. It stands for Life Support and Trauma Transport. Essentially, this is a self-contained unit with a giant ventilator I.V. fluid infusion pump and with full monitoring capability. Patients put on the stretcher can be intubated, stabilized, and transferred. The second concept that's become important is that of intermodal transportation. This is the use of containers of goods or contents by a variety of different methods.

The inside of these hospital cars can be made to different sizes. Along with this comes a mortuary embalming station. Arms Corps in South Africa originally developed this, with the concept that patients are embalmed onsite. This negates mass burials or graves. The remains are preserved. It can handle 800 bodies an hour. The bodies are embalmed, put into body bags, and stored at room temperature for later burial when the incident is over. The system would work like this: If these trains are placed -- and we'll estimate you'll need somewhere around 27 trains to cover the United States -- but if all other traffic is cleared off of the rails, you'll be no more than four to six hours rail travel to a major metropolitan area. Notification. We are estimating this will be the Reserves or the National Guard handling these trains.

Hatfill had visions of a biochemical apocalypse. He understood that biological warfare had terrible consequences that were not fully appreciated. He realized that massive casualties would occur if a metropolitan area were hit. But the more he made references to anthrax, the more he looked guilty in the anthrax attacks.

On June 29, 1998 Hatfill gave a Briefing to the FBI, Joint Terrorism Task Force, Washington D.C. Field Office during which he displayed slides of anthrax victims. On July 8, 1998 he gave another briefing at the Central Intelligence Agency, Counter-Terrorism Center, new headquarters building. On July 11, 1998 Hatfill presented an abstract entitled “Pathogenesis of Lethal Ebola Virus Infection in Adult Immunocompetent Mice” to the American Society of Virology, Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada. On July 14, 1998 he gave a briefing at the Pentagon, for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations/Low-Intensity Conflict. On August 11, 1998 he gave another briefing for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Medical Affairs, at the Pentagon.

In August 1998 Hatfill finished Emergence,[lxix] and had it copy written. On September 29, 1998 Hatfill briefed the Joint Terrorism Working Group, United States Army Military District of Washington. Fort McNair, Washington D.C. Hatfill’s Special Volunteer status was renewed for September 1998 to September 1999. His employer was only identified as the Department of Defense. Same salary, but 10 hrs / was noted. On October 26, 1998 Hatfill and D. F. Barbish presented a Briefing Paper to the National Security Council, Old Executive Office Building-Room 302 Washington, D.C.

Hatfill’s autobiography: “Around this time I started to hear reports of what was being discovered by weapons inspectors concerning Iraq’s biological warfare program. Believing that Iraq remained a serious threat I volunteered to be on a future UNSCOM inspection team. I never heard anything in response to my application, and eventually the weapons inspectors were thrown out of Iraq. At home I tried to project how this military threat might be addressed by the United States Armed Forces. I was aware of the level of training the military were receiving in the field of weapons of mass destruction as by this time I was teaching a small portion of a course developed by SAIC on biological weapons proliferation. The course, funded by the CIA, was designed for members of the military and intelligence communities. I felt that although the nuclear and chemical weapon arena were well covered by our military there were very serious deficiencies in the training of our troops to deal with biological warfare programs. Accordingly, in 1999 I wrote a white paper to outline my ideas regarding the role for the U.S. Armed Forces in dealing with such threats. I also set out to design a training program to met what I felt was an urgent need. For this I enlisted the help of some individuals knowledgeable in the field of large-scale state-sponsored biological weapons programs. This project was not sponsored by USAMRIID but was my individual effort. When the training outline was completed, I gave a copy to the Commander of USAMRIID and the Special Operations / Low Intensity Conflict Office at the Pentagon in November 1998.” In his deposition in Hatfill v Ashcroft he stated, “First I did not consider myself an insider in U.S. biodefense. I wasn’t skilled in working with anthrax. Up to date vaccination was not true. I had no training or experience in covering evidence. That’s not me. ‘May have had an UNSCOM connection?’ That was before my time.”

In 1998 Hatfill was an instructor at the CIA’s Non-Proliferation Course and he was also an instructor at the DIA’s Joint Military Attaché School (DHM-3C). In 1998 Hatfill co-authored a manuscript titled “Flexible and Rapid Mass Casualty Redistribution Following Large Area Urban Coverage by Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents.” Presumably also in 1998 Hatfill submitted a manuscript titled “Integration of the First Responder ALERT System with DSWA (Defense Special Weapons Agency formerly Defense Nuclear Agency) and DARPA (Defense Program Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Consequence Management Technologies for an Improved Non-military Defense Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism” and prepared a manuscript with John Huggins, Michael Bray and M. Matrinez entitled “Cidofovir Treatment for Smallpox and Monkeypox Orthopoxvirus Infections.” In December 1998, at Temple Beth Ami in Rockville, Maryland he “described the problems encountered with developing anthrax as a weapon.” On January 20, 1999 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development lab head Leonid Margolis reported that he had changed Hatfill’s termination to December 31, 1998.

Hatfill said he was immunized against anthrax at this time. Hatfill: “Like all researchers, working at Building 1412 at Fort Detrick previously, I had received a limited number of anthrax vaccinations. This is required for all researchers. However, a yearly booster is required to maintain immunity. I have last been inoculated in my records beginning in 1999, and since December 2000, I am as susceptible to anthrax as any of you.” A study done in the 1990’s at Fort Detrick revealed that seven out of eight monkeys given two doses of anthrax vaccine two weeks apart were protected for two years.[lxx] In September 1999, Hatfill co-authored an article in The Journal of Surgical Services Management entitled “Answering the Chemical and Biological Warfare Threat,” which urged the public health community to step up efforts prepare for a chemical or biological attack. On September 1, 1999 Hatfill gave a briefing at the U.S. Army Command Center at the Pentagon. On September 21, 1999 Hatfill spoke at the VA Hospital Regional Conference on “The Large Area Coverage Biological Incident.”

SAIC: Hatfill, “During the last few months of my National Research Council fellowship [at Fort Detrick], I was offered a job by Science Applications International Corp (SAIC), which I took. The salary I was offered was well above the $48,000 dollars a year I made while risking my life to perform research on the Ebola virus. I started at SAIC in January 1999, and became a leading instructor of the National Domestic Preparedness Weapons of Mass Destruction Hospital Casualty Management Course, as well as for a Veterans Administration training program for the management of casualties caused by Weapons of Mass Destruction. I also served as an observer and evaluator for TOPOFF 1, the largest national biological warfare management exercise ever conducted in this country. I developed a special biological warfare defense curriculum for the U.S. State Department and trained U.S. Embassy Medical Personnel in Egypt and Thailand. I served as a technical consultant to operational units of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy and instructed at the Military Defense Attaché Training School. In 1999 I designed and implemented the Biological Weapons Defense section of a WMD training package conducted for the United States Air Force, and helped deliver this on-site at Insurlik AFB – Turkey, Lakenheath AFB-England, and Misawa AFB, Japan. I visited USAMRIID on business on several occasions during my time with SAIC, and I taught at USAMRIID several times. During all these visits I was treated just like any other visitor to the Institute. I had to pass through security, and had to have a constant escort until the time that I left the building. At no time was I near any of the laboratories.”

In January 1999 Hatfill was granted a Secret Clearance by the Department of Defense to work at the McLean, Virginia offices of SAIC, a large defense contractor, headed by Admiral Bobby Inman, a high ranking member of America’s intelligence community. With a sprawling campus in McLean, it did work for a multitude of federal agencies. Many projects were classified, and SAIC's tight relationship with the CIA had led to a standing one-liner: "What is SAIC spelled backwards?" CIA’S. At SAIC Hatfill trained U.S. Special Forces, embassy employees, emergency workers, and other government officials to respond to biological attacks, served as a lecturer for the State Department on the medical effects of chemical and biological agents. Judge Claude M. Hilton ruled, “Plaintiff designed and gave classified lectures on biological weapon production to the CIA, the DIA, and special operations units of the armed forces. In addition, Plaintiff attended a classified lecture, which described the process for producing powdered anthrax, and on at least one occasion, delivered a lecture on weaponizing anthrax. In September 1999, Plaintiff co-authored an article in The Journal Surgical Services Management entitled “Answering the Chemical and Biological Warfare Threat,” which urged the public health community to step up efforts prepare for a chemical or biological attack. Pursuant to a SAIC contract with the Joint Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg, Plaintiff supervised the creation of a simulated biological weapons laboratory inside a shipping container and trained forces how to recognize and destroy such containers. Government officials sought Plaintiff’s advice on matters of national security and bioterrorism, and considered him an expert in biological weaponry.” At SAIC, Hatfill designed and taught bioterror preparedness courses, but his responsibilities also included "black," or classified, biowarfare projects. One of Hatfill's major roles was working with the Joint Special Operations Command, which handled U.S. military counterterrorism operations. At Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Hatfill led grueling training for Army commandos preparing for covert missions to find and destroy weapons of mass destruction, according to friends and former colleagues. He conducted counter-terrorism training for Defense Intelligence agents and did a "super job," says DIA spokesman Don Black.

Glasberg claimed that at Science Applications International, “he got low-level security clearance for one project.” In his resume Hatfill stated that he held a Secret Security Clearance. Hatfill wrote, “After being hired and starting work at SAIC, I received an interim Department of Defense contractor Secret clearance and a full contractor Secret clearance some months later. I used this clearance only a few weeks each year, if I was tasked to work on occasional classified projects for the Armed Forces. The vast majority of my work at SAIC pertained to non-classified established projects being implemented by the United States Department of Defense, Health and Human Services, and Justice. On top of my long work hours, I continued to maintain a small teaching schedule for several government agencies, including the CIA, the Navy, the Army and occasionally the Marines or Capitol Police. Most of these lectures were done at the unclassified level, and often for free, as a public service in the national interest.”

SAIC is heavily involved in counter-terrorism: David A. Kay, senior vice president of the SAIC is a former UNSCOM inspector who led the initial nuclear inspections in Iraq in the early 1990's.[lxxi] Hatfill would blame Kay for his dismissal from SAIC. SAIC honcho Ben Haddad stated that his company was involved in the war in Iraq, but he refused to discuss how. Many of SAIC's long-standing defense contracts involved supporting the command and control centers for U.S. military or intelligence agencies.

On February 3, 1999 Hatfill gave a briefing to the Underground Facilities Working Group, DARPA. In February 1999 Hatfill attended a Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation Course that was entitled: “Principles of Chemical and Biological Weapon Development, Dual Use and Dedicated Production Facilities, Munitions, and Weapons Effects Countermeasures. Sponsored by the CIA Biological Warfare Division.”

While at SAIC Hatfill and Dr. Joseph Soukup commissioned a 28-page report dated February 1999 depicting a hypothetical anthrax attack by mail. In April 1999 Hatfill attended a course entitled: “Toxic Chemical Training Course for Medical Support Personnel” that was sponsored by U.S. Army Medical Command and conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. “Mandatory Training Program Under (AR) 50-6 for Chemical Warfare Duty Positions.” On April 20, 1999 Hatfill presented a paper entitled “Technology Working Group on Rapid Diagnostics” to the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.

In late 1999 Hatfill was arrested for public drunkenness at 4 a.m. in McLean, Virginia. Hatfill's attorney, Thomas Carter, described Hatfill to the judge as a “medical doctor holding an extremely important position in government. He is on a government assignment in Cairo and Bangkok until December 2, 1999.” The charges were dropped. On February 17, 2000 Hatfill was in Japan at the International US / Japan Joint Conference on Disaster Preparedness in Tokyo speaking about “Roles of Information Technology in Consequence Management of Large-Scale Biological Attack.” In August 2000 Hatfill trained forces at MacDill Air Force Base, in Tampa, using a makeshift bioterror kitchen lab that he built himself out of scavenged parts, as well as biosafety cabinets taken [or borrowed] from USAMRIID. In October 2000 Hatfill completed studies with both the USAMRIID in management of biological warfare casualties and with the CIA on bioweapons proliferation.[lxxii]

In the Spring or Summer of 2001 Hatfill told his college alumni magazine “Steven Hatfill [Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas] 1975 is a specialist in biological warfare and its defense, and has completed training to become a United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq. The training involved five weeks of intensive study in France with 52 other scientists from U.N. member nations. When inspectors are given permission to re-enter Iraq, Hatfill will be on the first team of inspectors. The U.N. training continues a peripatetic career that began while Hatfill was studying for his biology degree at Southwestern: He took a year off to work with a Methodist doctor in Africa. After graduating from SC Hatfill received a medical degree from the Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine in Rhodesia, with board certification in hematological pathology from South Africa. The South African government recruited him to be medical officer on a one-year tour of duty in Antarctica, and he completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Oxford University in England. He has three separate master's degrees in microbial genetics, medical biochemistry, and experimental pathology, as well as a Ph.D. in molecular cellular biology. Hatfill's postdoctoral appointments include the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland and USAMRIID at Fort Detrick, Maryland, where he studied new drug treatments for the Ebola virus. His military background includes the United States Army's Institute for Military Assistance, the Rhodesian SAS, and Selous Scouts. He holds certifications in military aviation medicine, and diving and submarine medicine. Hatfill now works for SAIC and lives in Frederick, Maryland.”[lxxiii]

In September 2001 Hatfill was also a consultant for the Navy Seals, designing mock bioterror training devices, including a backpack that could be used to spray deadly germs on the battlefield. He trained CIA agents in counter-proliferation, and visited U.S. embassies to lecture on bioterrorism preparedness.

HATFILL’S ALIBI: Hatfill released a time sheet from Science Applications International Corp that shows that on the days when the letters were probably mailed, September 17, 2001 and September 18, 2001 he put in 14, 13.5 hours respectively. His timesheet shows a lot of work activity for those days, with more entries than the days before them and after them. Was Hatfill establishing an alibi for the days of the mailing by working long hours, and then instead of returning home after work driving four hours to Princeton and four hours back? This would be a total of 22 hours leaving two hours to sew up any loose ends. Hatfill could have made the eight-hour roundtrip to New Jersey, mailed the letters and gone to work the next day. He did not live in doorman building. Nobody kept track of whether his car was in the lot or not. He has no wife or kids staying with him. He is a physically strong individual and missing a night's sleep wouldn't affect him.

 Hatfill has time sheets that he presented at his press conference that indicated that he was credited for 13, and 11.25 hours of work in that company's McLean, Virginia offices on Columbus Day Monday October 8, 2001 and Tuesday October 9, 2001 respectively. This was when anthrax letters were allegedly mailed from New Jersey, which Hatfill claimed would have made a 8 hour roundtrip from SAIC offices in suburban McLean, Virginia, to central New Jersey unlikely. National Public Radio confirmed that on Saturday October 6, 2001 Hatfill was at a wedding in Baltimore with his girlfriend. On Sunday October 7, 2001 he claimed he had a hangover at was at his girlfriends’ apartment sleeping it off.

Hatfill could have gotten off work at 8 pm on Monday October 8, 2001 or Tuesday October 9, 2001 driven 8 hours to Princeton and back, mailed the letters and gone to work the next morning. Or he could have driven down to Princeton on Sunday or Sunday night assuming that his girlfriend had agreed to alibi him. Peck Chegne is his alibi for that Sunday and Sunday night, the only one to see him all day as he slept. Peck Chegne is a Malaysian-born widowed mother of two who had come to the United States from Kuala Lumpur and worked at a financial consulting firm. We have to take her word that he was inside with her all day and night. Alibis from close family members are regarded with suspicion by law enforcement however I can’t see her providing an alibi for a mass murderer. When Peck hooked up with Steve she never signed on for homicide.

Hatfill stated, “It is definitely not good to be the girlfriend of a person of interest. My girlfriend was locked inside an FBI car and hauled off to FBI headquarters and interrogated for hours, without once being told she has the right to leave any time she wished. Her requests for a lawyer were delayed and made difficult. Her purse, although not on the search warrant, was taken from her and its contents examined after the interrogation process while she was being driven back to her residence. She was screamed at by FBI agents and told that the FBI had firm evidence that I had killed five innocent people. This was told to her by FBI agent Jennifer Grant and FBI agent Pamela Lane. Can you imagine that? The FBI trumpets that I am not a suspect, and the woman I love is told the FBI -- told by the FBI that I am a murderer. This is the life of a person of interest, Mr. Ashcroft. But that's not all. My girlfriend was told that she better take a polygraph examination and cooperate, or else. Her home checkbooks, computers, private papers and car were seized. As for her home, it was completely trashed, as is appropriate for the home of a girlfriend of a person of interest. Some of her delicate pottery was smashed. The glass on a $3,000 painting was broken. This painting was wrapped in bubble wrap, by the way. Neatly stacked boxes awaiting shipment to her new home were ripped open, instead of opened with due regard to their contents. Ladies and gentlemen, we have pictures of how FBI left this apartment, her apartment, which, at the time of the raid, was neatly prepared for a move to Louisiana, with all her belongings packed in nicely stacked boxes. This is one of the pictures. I refuse to allow my girlfriend -- to this treatment, as the girlfriend of a person of interest. She is not here today. I love you. I will not state her name here [Peck Chegne b 1958]. And I ask the news media, please, for common decency, if you know it, please leave her alone. She will not make a statement.” The Feds didn’t buy the alibi as it relied solely on her word and not the word of neutral, uninvolved parties.

Hatfill, “We know that four anthrax letters were mailed September 17, 2001 September 18, 2001 and October 8, 2001 and October 9, 2001. On these days, as indeed for many weeks after September 11, my colleagues and I at SAIC were working overtime in our McLean, Virginia, office on national defense issues. My time sheets from the company, which are being distributed here, show that on these days I worked respectively 14 hours, 13 1/2 hours, 13 hours, and 11 1/4 hours at the office. Yes, I know, it's possible that time cards could have been altered. Well, I'll tell you SAIC goes to extreme lengths to ensure this process can't happen. In addition, the FBI long ago interviewed all of my colleagues at SAIC, and each confirmed that I was, like them, continuously hard at work in the office during this entire period. All right then, I could have driven or surreptitiously somehow transported myself to Trenton or Princeton or wherever from the D.C. area, mailed the letters and returned unnoticed. With any luck, I would not have been caught speeding on the highway, and maybe I could have made the eight-hour round trip in enough time to return to work unnoticed and exhausted and continued with another 13-hour day. I have little to say about the nonsense of this sort. If it pleases you to advance and research this theory, then please the more power to you. As for me, I was living and working in the D.C. area the entire time when the anthrax letters were mailed. Mr. Ashcroft knows this -- or he should know this, notwithstanding my status as a person of interest.”

In early November 2001 Hatfill taught two weeks of counterterrorism training for the Defense Intelligence Agency. Dressed in military clothing, Hatfill used role-playing exercises to teach agents how to negotiate with Afghani tribal leaders. DIA officials thought so highly of Hatfill that they appealed to SAIC in March 2002 to let him train another group of intelligence agents bound for Afghanistan with or without a CIA clearance. SAIC had fired Hatfill, who was coming under increasing scrutiny from the FBI. But the company agreed to let him stay on as a volunteer to run the course, which included a mock bioterror attack staged in an old West Virginia highway tunnel. At night, he camped under the stars.

In November 2001 Hatfill published “Haematological, Biochemical and Coagulation Changes in Mice, Guinea-pigs and Monkeys Infected with a Mouse-adapted Variant of Ebola Zaire Virus” in the Journal of Comparative Pathology. “Ebola Zaire virus from the 1976 outbreak (EBO-Z) was recently adapted to the stage of lethal virulence in BALB/c mice through serial passage. In the present study, various parameters were examined in groups of mice and guinea pigs and in three rhesus monkeys after infection with mouse-adapted EBO-Z. The virus caused fatal disease not only in mice but also in guinea pigs, in which the course of illness resembled that produced by guinea-pig-adapted EBO-Z. Mice, guinea pigs and monkeys showed similar hematological and biochemical disturbances, but coagulopathy was less striking in mice than in the other two species. The virus caused severe illness in all three monkeys, one of which died. In the lethally infected monkey the degree of viraemia and the hematological, serum biochemical and coagulation changes were greater than in the other two animals, an observation that may prove to be of value in predicting fatal outcome. All three monkeys developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. The two survivors were completely resistant to challenge one year later with non-adapted EBO-Z. In general, the clinical and pathological changes produced in the three species resembled those previously described in guinea pigs and non-human primates infected with non-mouse-adapted EBO-Z. It was noteworthy, however, that mouse-adaptation appeared to have resulted in a degree of attenuation for monkeys.”

During November 12, 2001 to November 23, 2001 Hatfill was at Porton Down where he trained as a United Nations bioweapons inspector so he could be on call to go to Iraq. During the course he worked with other scientists inside a mock-up of an Iraqi germ warfare laboratory, which might be concealed as an innocent looking diary or brewery or pharmaceutical plant. Hatfill did very well in the course, favorably impressing instructors with his intelligence and forceful personality. “He asked all the right questions and was likable and outgoing,” said one. Hatfill went along with the view that Sadaam Hussein was behind the anthrax letters. “We have got to stop him,” he said. He told the other would-be inspectors that he was going to spend his free weekend at Oxford, where he had worked at the John Radcliffe Hospital in the mid-1990's. His travel expenses to Britain were paid by the Foreign Office.

In March 2002 Hatfill lectured at a training session for the DIA's Chemical and Biological Intelligence Support Team at Camp Dawson, West Virginia. The DIA was training agents to work in Afghanistan, then to later go to Iraq and other countries suspected of conducting bioweapons programs. These DIA and CIA agents were placed in the 75th Exploitation Task Force, which searched for WMD in Iraq. The DIA had to beg SAIC to allow Hatfill, who had lost his security clearance, to participate. For this work Hatfill received letters of accommodation from the DIA and the State Department. The State Department commented: “An employee of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security wrote a letter of recommendation last summer. It was written without proper authorization and was not cleared elsewhere in the State Department, so it was personal views of an employee who worked with him.”[lxxiv] Hatfill continued to work on the germ trainer doing it on his own, using his own money, even after he lost his clearance and received no further pay.

Hatfill blamed his dismissal from SAIC on David Kay: “Finally, Plaintiff challenges the statement that his private writings showed animus to federal agencies. Plaintiff claims that one writing in particular only showed dissatisfaction with one individual, an individual who was instrumental in suspending his security clearance. However, Plaintiff also authored a letter writing, in which he described the government’s conclusions with respect to a CIA security decision as dated and illogical. Plaintiff has offered no evidence to contradict the veracity of these facts, or of the underlying gist that Plaintiff was displeased with the government’s decision to terminate his security clearance.”[lxxv] Victor Glasberg said SAIC has since offered Hatfill settlement payments, which he rejected, and more work, which he accepted. Hatfill: “Ironically, I was called back to SAIC on numerous occasions to assist with projects I started as well as to help with new projects. SAIC eventually had to contract for my continued services through Louisiana State University.” A spokesperson for the State Department and for SAIC confirmed that Hatfill worked on a SAIC-State Department contract in the spring 2002, after Louisiana State University hired him. While he was still at SAIC, Hatfill helped create the biological warfare defense program for the State Department, according to Benjamin A. Haddad of SAIC. The public affairs office for the State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security confirmed that SAIC holds that contract, and that Hatfill worked on it after he went to Louisiana State University “for a brief period of time, probably for about a month, from April to May 2002.” Hatfill was on Louisiana State University’s payroll by the end of April. Still living in Maryland, he was an adjunct professor who prepared course materials for training police and other emergency workers who respond to terrorist attacks. Hatfill traveled to Baton Rouge in order to find an apartment as he was eventually going to move there. He also worked on the program to protect State Department personnel and State Department facilities from terrorist attacks.

Hatfill attended a State Department meeting on embassy security in postwar Afghanistan. FBI agents interviewed Hatfill for two-hours in March 2002. A brief search of his apartment was conducted. In all the FBI interviewed Hatfill four times during this period. On May 9, 2002 Washington, D.C. police stopped Hatfill’s vehicle. Hatfill was drunk and didn't have a driver's license. He refused to take a sobriety test and told the officers to go to hell. He eventually pleaded guilty to driving while impaired and was sentenced to 11 months of supervised probation. Hatfill was supposed to lecture at a conference entitled “Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Frightening Future for Primary Care Providers” in May 2002 - June 2002 but the conference was canceled.

Hatfill wrote, “In June 2002, one Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, a self-proclaimed biological weapons expert whom I do not know, with whom I have never spoken or corresponded, and who to my knowledge is ignorant of my work and background except in the broadest of terms, saw fit to denounce me as a prime suspect in the anthrax letters in meetings with Senate staffers involved with the anthrax inquiry. The only thing I know about her views is that she and I apparently differed on whether the United States should sign onto a proposed modification of the International Biological Weapons Convention. This was something I opposed and I believe she favored. One week after Dr. Rosenberg’s comments, the FBI asked if its agents could have a look at my apartment and swab the walls for anthrax spores. I was surprised at the request. After all, anthrax is a deadly substance. Like all researchers working in building #1412 at Fort Detrick I had been inoculated against anthrax. But a yearly booster is required to maintain immunity and I had last been inoculated in 1999. Since December 2000 I was – and have been – as susceptible to anthrax infection as any of you. So I was surprised at the notion that I might have brought anthrax to my home and would have been amused were it not for the fact that the matter was so serious. I agreed without hesitation and signed the forms to have my car, apartment, and a small storage area in Florida examined. I keep some books, a couple of paintings, and some big game horns from Africa stored in the Florida site. The FBI agents had promised that the search would be quiet, private and low-key. Within minutes of signing the release to have my residence and car searched, however, television cameras, satellite TV trucks, reporters and a news helicopter were swarming around my apartment block. FBI personnel arrived in a huge truck with hazardous materials technicians fully garbed in protective gear – space suits. I had previously actually helped train some of the FBI personnel doing the search of my apartment. Responding to my surprise and dismay, the agent in charge apologized to me saying that the request for the search had come from high up. It was clear from the media circus that this was not an ordinary investigatory initiative. A written and televised media frenzy ensued (and continues to date) with reporters and columnists writing, stating and repeating the most outlandish defamatory accusations possible about me. Repeated senior FBI statements that I am not a suspect, that nothing has been found to implicate me in the crimes at issue, and that I have at all times readily cooperated with the investigatory authorities, have fallen on deaf ears. The individual FBI agents with whom I came in contact during this entire process are sons and daughters of which America can be justifiably proud. They are fine men and women doing their best to protect their country. As a scientist in the field of biological warfare defense, I had never had any reservations about assisting in the anthrax investigation in any way that I could. This is the price we pay for choosing to work in this field, and the cost is more than offset by the satisfaction we all gain in doing work that is important for the security of our country.”

Within a week of Professor Rosenberg’s meetings on Capitol Hill, on June 25, 2002 the FBI conducted another consensual search of Hatfill’s apartment. The evidence taken in that search was returned on July 12, 2002. FBI Special Agent Robert Roth stated, “I talked to him on – around July 27, 2002 or so because he had promised to come back in to finish that polygraph and I think that’s the point at which he said he injected Glasberg into the deal and said he wasn’t going to sit for the poly. And August 1, 2002 when we did the search warrant and a subpoena I served on him probably a year and a half ago. At least a couple of times returning evidence. So whatever we’re up to. I didn’t count how many times it was [I spoke with him].” On the day of the search, Dr. Hatfill had agreed to meet with FBI special agents assigned to the Washington Field Office. The meeting was held at an office leased by the FBI in Frederick, Maryland, approximately 50 miles from Washington, D.C. At the conclusion of the meeting, Dr. Hatfill consented to have FBI agents search his Frederick, Maryland apartment. A dozen FBI agents searched a refrigerated mini-storage unit in downtown Ocala, Florida. These agents removed boxes from a locker rented by Hatfill after his parents sold their horse farm 12 miles west of Ocala. The items that were removed included videotapes, film and photographs. On Hatfill’s computer hard drive; agents discovered the first draft of Emergence. The FBI indicated it found no anthrax and had anthrax spores been found in Dr. Steven J. Hatfill's Frederick apartment, he would be in jail.[lxxvi] The FBI also conducted a second search of Dr. Hatfill’s storage unit in Ocala, Florida and again the press was present. There were four searches—two of Dr. Hatfill’s apartment and two of his Florida storage unit. The FBI seized several items in these searches, including notes regarding the anthrax mailings, a container of Cipro, an antibiotic effective against anthrax and a spinner flask of anthrax stimulant.

June 25, 2002 was the next time Hatfill agreed to speak with FBI Agents: Bob Roth: “It was my understanding to keep him close by for questions. Because typically when I do consent searches, I actually want the person right there with me. For clarification if nothing else. You find something and you may not understand why is this here? There may be a very legitimate reason why this is here. And so you want – because they are the one who gave you consent to do the search, obviously.”

Stephen L. Guillot Jr., director of the National Center for Biomedical Research and Training at Louisiana State University, said that the FBI contacted him a few days after agents searched Hatfill's apartment and storage unit. “They told me Steve was not a suspect and was not on any list.” Guillot said. He said he was satisfied that Hatfill had been cleared of any role in the anthrax mailings. Hatfill wrote, “On leaving SAIC I secured a position with Louisiana State University to wrote with a consortium of universities on important federally funded problems for biological defense. I was constantly being called back to SAIC to assist with project I had started, as well as to help with new projects. SAIC eventually undertook to contract for my continued services through Louisiana State University, a process that continues today (July 2002). I continued to work wit SAIC because of the close association I had with my superb team there and my desire to help as requested in the completion of important contracts. I consider several of the projects in question to be of national importance for the defense of my country.”

Hatfill lectured at Louisiana State University, and on July 1, 2002, became a brief full-time employee for Louisiana State University, where he played a role in the TOPOFF program, a massive, federal program begun in 2000 to “test” the reactions of government agencies in the face of simulated terrorism events. Hatfill design a single simulated biological weapon “scenario” involving release of the plague virus for TOPOFF. Hatfill claimed to have worked just one afternoon on this project, and claimed his role was unknown to some of the personnel responsible for the project.[lxxvii] Hatfill had a role in the management of TOPOFF and in the administration or evaluation of any “tests” given. Hatfill was an associate director of Louisiana State University's National Center for Biomedical Research and Training, which is supported by grants from the Justice Department to train emergency personnel to handle bioterrorist attacks. His job title was Associate Director, Division of Continuing Education and his salary $150,000 a year.

The State Department’s position was that Hatfill was a contract employee with SAIC. The State Department had a contract with SAIC to provide advice and guidance on the training programs in our Chemical Biological Countermeasures Office of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Dr. Hatfill worked on this program part-time, as part of this contract, from mid-April 2002 until mid-June 2002.

On August 1, 2002 the FBI told Glasberg that it wished to conduct another search of Hatfill’s home. The way the FBI saw it Hatfill refused so the agents obtained a search warrant and tossed his crib. “Upon learning from Dr. Hatfill that the search was underway, Glasberg phoned Special Agent Roth to ask why he had ignored his voicemail message offering to cooperate. Special Agent Roth acknowledged listening to the phone message, but contended he did not understand the offer of cooperation. Glasberg requested that Special Agent Roth save the voicemail message to settle the issue of its content. Special Agent Roth refused to guarantee the safekeeping of the voicemail. Glasberg then wrote to Kenneth Kohl, the Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia assigned to the anthrax investigation, to alert him to the situation and request the voicemail message be secured. Kohl never responded to Mr. Glasberg’s letter. Hatfill does not know whether the government preserved or destroyed this evidence.”

Glasberg claimed that Hatfill refused another polygraph test on his advice, but was willing to co-operate with the FBI. As stated searching his refrigerator, agents found a canister of Bacillus thuringiensis, or BT a pesticide widely used on insects—which USAMRIID adopted for study in 1995, after UNSCOM discovered that BT was Iraq’s favored anthrax simulant. On August 1, 2002 the FBI questioned Hatfill at a nearby hotel while they tossed his pad after obtaining a search warrant. FBI SA Bradley Garrett: “We took him out away from the apartment complex so they [the media] would not have access to him. Well, we did go to a hotel.” After this August 2002 search Hatfill was put on thirty-day administrative paid leave from his job at Louisiana State University on August 2, 2002.

Through Clawson, Hatfill issued a statement saying, "I'm becoming desperate to find ways to clear my name, and I'm willing to consider any scientific test that may be appropriate." The FBI was willing to oblige:

August 2002 was a big Hatfill month. Attorney General Ashcroft, or one of his deputies, approved the FBI's installation of electronic eavesdropping equipment in Hatfill's apartment and on his private residential telephone line. Since that time, special agents of the FBI have listened in on every conversation Hatfill has had while in his apartment or while using his telephone. In order to initially obtain a court order to electronically eavesdrop on Dr. Hatfill, and for each subsequent monthly extension of that Title III order, an FBI special agent was required to swear under oath to a federal district court judge that there was probable cause for belief that particular communications concerning [the anthrax murders] will be obtained through such interception. Government agents have been aware since the fall of 2002 that Dr. Hatfill knew of the electronic surveillance.

Patrick Clawson reported: “The FBI is following him. Surveillance comes and goes. Some days it's very intense; some days it's not visible at all. But the FBI has been continuing their investigation of him. And apparently they are coming up empty. And not long ago they were following him very closely on the Interstate - he was driving from D.C. up to Frederick Maryland, and they were in front of him, behind him and on the side of him as he was going up the freeway.”

The FBI was not intent on preventing his escape, it was making sure he didn’t mail out any more anthrax. Pat Clawson: “The FBI has used a cavalcade of vehicles, and Hatfill is driving around Baton Rouge with FBI agents two or three feet off his bumper. Hatfill occasionally has tried to speak with the FBI agents, but they have ignored him.” On several separate evenings, Hatfill and Clawson said, a virtual caravan of cars set out behind Hatfill, some racing ahead while others kept on his bumper. Hatfill believes that his telephone is wiretapped and that the night he received a telephone invitation to meet a friend and get some fresh, homemade potato soup, the FBI agents heard the call and set out after him. He said he believes five cars followed him. He met his friend at a restaurant in Northern Virginia and had an ice tea. While he was in the restaurant two people came in who he believes were FBI agents. After he picked up the soup and started to leave, he said his friend approached a black Mustang with two men it and offered them his business card, but they refused to talk to him. Later in the evening, after Hatfill returned home, a surveillance car drove past his residence with a video camera openly pointed out the window. The FBI was finally doing something right! Hatfill volunteered to wear a portable GPS electronic tracking system at all times so that the FBI could know his whereabouts. The FBI declined his offer. He also offered to let an FBI agent or employee ride with him. This offer was also declined.

Hatfill was leaving his Maryland apartment for a new residence in Louisiana and threw some stuff he no longer needed in a dumpster behind the complex. The FBI, who had him under surveillance, assumed he was destroying evidence. With this information the FBI got a search warrant and searched his apartment for a third time and also searched the trash containers in front of Hatfill's home. Neighbors found a suit to protect against chemical contamination, a vest with loops to attach 40 rocket-propelled grenades (a souvenir from the grenade attack on the ANC office), and a “Star Trek: Deep Space Nine” technical manual, a 30-pound dumbbell, a Purple Heart medal and a rug with the CIA emblem emblazoned on a field of blue.[lxxviii]

Hatfill stated in August 2002, “I want to give you, the American people, an idea of what it is like to be named a person of interest by the attorney general of the United States. John Ashcroft has now twice publicly told the American people that I am a person of interest in last year's anthrax attacks. Most recently, several days ago at a news conference in Newark, New Jersey, the FBI says I am not a suspect, and then it does not use the term, ‘person of interest.’ Mr. Ashcroft, however, continues to do this publicly, and I am here to complain about this and its consequences. My attorneys have filed an ethics complaint on Mr. Ashcroft's conduct, as well as that of others involved in this matter. And I will be very interested to learn how well the Justice Department will police itself. Mr. Ashcroft has repeatedly testified to his strong Christian values, and I highly respect him for this. Unlike many others, I was delighted when he was selected for his appointment to this high public office. In practice, however, by openly, repeatedly naming me as a person of interest, Mr. Ashcroft has not only violated Justice Department regulations and guidelines, which bind him as the nation's top law enforcement official, but in my view, he has broken the 9th commandment: Thou shalt not bear false witness. I have never met Mr. Ashcroft. I don't know him. I've never spoken with him. And I do not understand his personalized focus on me.”

Hatfill tried to sound like a fundamentalist Christian. He knew he could not con Ashcroft who had studied the FBI documents on him and knew he had a checkered past but he might be able to convince the American public that he was just another Christian Republican who had been singled out for no good reason.

“My lawyers can find no legal definition for a person of interest. I, however, have a working definition. A person of interest is someone who comes into being when the government is under intense political pressure to solve a crime but can't do so, either because of the crime is too difficult to solve or because the authorities are proceeding in what can mildly be called a wrong-headed manner.”

Hatfill was taunting the FBI when he said the crime is too difficult to solve because he knew he had outsmarted the FBI. “A wrong-headed manner” meant that the FBI should not be looking for a rogue scientist but should be focusing on Iraq. Wrong-headed sounds like ass ways to me. But Hatfill knows best. Hatfill is the third foremost authority on biological warfare in the US. The Federal Government should have listened to Hatfill as he was always “right-headed” then there would have been no need for the wake up call. Hatfill kept bellyaching about being called a person of interest – Hatfill’s attorney explained, “To prioritize the various leads that needed to be investigated, the FBI created a formal list of persons of interest. This term – which was invented specifically for this investigation by Special Agents John Kerr and Bob Roth – was a way of classifying persons who met one or more specific criteria that justified further investigative scrutiny. Generally speaking, the more criteria a person happened to meet, the higher that person would be on the constantly changing list. The reason a new term was invented was that the persons of interest list was intended by the FBI to include people who were very definitely not suspects or subjects; indeed, agents recognized from the start that the vast majority of persons of interest were innocent of any wrongdoing, and in many cases entirely above suspicion. The agents also recognized, however, that if the names of these persons of interest were made public, it would be bad for the investigation and even worse for the people named. Among other things, publication of someone’s person of interest status had the potential to stigmatize and humiliate that person, subject him to a risk of physical harm, and interfere with his employment and other relationships. It could also compromise the investigation by providing the perpetrator(s) with a roadmap of how the investigation was proceeding, or by influencing statements made to investigators or by helping associates of the persons of interest evade questioning. For these reasons, the person of interest list was designed only for internal FBI use.” Actually the FBI was being polite when it labeled Hatfill POI because in reality he was a full-fledged suspect.

Hatfill continued, “It then becomes unnecessary for the FBI and other authorities to produce a warm body, but since there's no suspect and the authorities have nothing on which to base a prosecution, they pick a serviceable target. This should preferably be a person about whom mysterious questions can be raised, someone with an interesting or colorful background.”

In other words law enforcement should ignore the fact that Hatfill was a soldier in Rhodesia assigned to the Selous Scouts because it is too romantic, as if it were taken from some adventure novel about a soldier of fortune.

“Then they give him a prejudicial label, person of interest. And they leak appropriate rumor and innuendo to the press. Then they sit back and watch uncharged and presumptively innocent person be picked apart by journalists looking for hot stories. It soon becomes inconsequential that the stories have no bearing on the crime at issue. What is useful is that the FBI can be seen to be on the job. The press is hot on the trail and the public is satisfied, as Mr. Ashcroft continues to say without any explanation that progress in anthrax letter attacks is being made. God help us all if the FBI's pursuit of Mr. Ashcroft's person of interest -- me -- represents that progress.”

The Scott Shane and Nick Kristof reporting had a bearing on the crime at issue. The press would not have cared about the details of Hatfill’s life had he not been a suspect in the anthrax attacks.

“I helped bring into being a useful bio-defense training program for first responders, police and fire departments. Because of this label as a person of interest, reporters have -- some reporters have placed a malicious and absurd interpretation on this, and suggested it's not a blueprint for this, but it's a blueprint for the anthrax attacks. Rising to the occasion, the FBI grilled me about this. Almost a quarter century ago, I lived in a city that had a suburb named Greendale. The FBI and some in media willingly linked this with a nonexistent Greendale school that appeared in the return address on four anthrax letters. ABC News even reported as a fact that I lived next door to that nonexistent school for four years, citing unidentified government gumshoes.” There was a middle school located in Greendale that was informally known as Greendale. But even if there was not, the Greendale suburb link still remained.

“Reporters and conspiracy nuts have laid out my entire life history on the Internet. My daughter, a policewoman in Detroit, with a child, even found her name and home address published, a reckless and dangerous act that invites retaliation from criminals, as every police officer will tell you.”

This was a reference to the material I posted on the Jewish Defense Organization website. Hatfill calls me a conspiracy nut because I co-authored a book that stated that rogue elements of the CIA were involved in the John Kennedy assassination. I never posted his daughters home address. According to the internet archives on October 3, 2002 the website contained these words, “The accident was on 23 Mile Road, about 10 miles north of his and Kamin’s residence. Kamin, who became a policewoman, was married on March 1, 1997, in St. Clare Shores, Michigan to William Harry Bode.” Clawson said it was another website but did not have the URL, however, he does have a printout of the site.

Remember your own travail, Mr. Ashcroft, when persons opposed to your selection as attorney general dug up elements of your past? I could dwell on this at length, but my principles bar me from doing so here. In any event, Mr. Ashcroft, you asked for that. I did not. And I wonder how you would cope, being on the end of media frenzy that I have been enduring this entire summer. When the attorney general as a person of interest labels you, presumptively responsible persons seem to lose all inhibitions in referring to you.”

In 1998, Ashcroft gave an interview to the Southern Partisan, a South Carolina White Supremacist quarterly promoting the Confederacy, slavery and Jim Crow. Ashcroft said, "Your magazine also helps set the record straight. You've got a heritage of doing that, of defending Southern patriots like [Robert E.] Lee, [Stonewall] Jackson and Davis. Traditionalists must do more. I've got to do more. We've all got to stand up and speak in this respect, or else we'll be taught that these people were giving their lives, subscribing their sacred fortunes and their honor to some perverted agenda." When Ashcroft was Attorney General of Missouri he fought against integration. In other words Hatfill is suggesting the both himself and the AG were wrongly labeled “racists.”

“Following my first press appearance, Mr. Kristof once again wrote about me. Once again, his column was inaccurate. He said, for example, that I had failed three successive polygraph examinations since January. This is a total lie. I have not taken, let alone failed, three polygraphs on anthrax since January. I had one polygraph session, which the FBI did administer to me in January, and I was told I passed and the examiner was satisfied that I had told the truth. In any event, Mr. Kristof never called me about this allegation, nor did he call my attorney, nor my friend Pat Clawson, who's been helping me with this news media hurricane. Mr. Kristof, why do you write such things? Why did you not at least check your facts or ask comment from my representatives or me? What have I done to injure you in this manner? I have another question, too. Why do you permit yourself to be used as a vehicle to leak irreparably damaging information about me to the public? Such as for example, your statement that I was under constant surveillance by the FBI? It's bad enough that that statement is true, and I lived with the consequences. But must it be gratuitously broadcast so that others might keep away from me from fear of contamination? Why is it necessary, right or fair, Mr. Kristof, for you to write these things? The answer, of course, is that I am a person of interest, as well as to Nicholas Kristof and the Attorney General, John Ashcroft. We are today distributing copies of my lawyer's communications with the Times and Mr. Kristof about these matters, and will agree to publish an op-ed reply from me to what they have published about me for months. So far they have not agreed to do this, but keeping silent.”

“Armed with a secretly obtained government search warrant, FBI agents can enter your home with impunity and take virtually anything they want, including your car registration, your tax records, your car keys, the deeds to your house, if you have one, your apartment, rental agreements, cell phone, pagers, unused bank checks, checks made out to you but not yet cashed, clothing. They can keep these items for as long as they want, unless you go out and retain and pay a lawyer and you can convince a judge that you should get your property back.”

That was a pretty broad search warrant so there must have been plenty of probable cause.

“Let me return to my life as a person of interest. I am openly followed by the FBI agents and in cars and on foot, 24 hours a day. Going down to store for a pack of gum yields a parade of FBI cars sometimes following me closely as two to four feet from my rear bumper. And the FBI leaks for use by cooperative journalists the fact I'm being tailed 24 hours seven days a week. In complete violation of normal investigative procedures, the FBI have circulated only my photograph at a crime scene -- a photographic one-man lineup -- in an attempt to find someone to testify that they remember seeing me in the area almost a year ago.”

“As a person of interest, you cannot win. The fact that you love and work for your country will be turned against you by means of the ridiculous suggestion that your patriotism prompted you to murder five innocent persons so that a statement can be made regarding our lack of preparedness against a biological attack. All this reminds me of Kafka's novel, The Trial. Perhaps that story is the source of Mr. Kristof’s Mr. Z. All the above is what it's like living as a person of interest designated by John Ashcroft, the attorney general, and I cannot do anything about it. I haven't been charged with any crime. Again, the Justice Department has told the press that there is no evidence that I've committed a crime. I have to contend with a moving target of rumor, innuendo, fantasy, half-truths, and now the super-duper bionic bloodhounds that the FBI recently pulled out of a hat. The Justice Department has repeatedly claimed its making significant progress in the anthrax investigation. I sure hope so, because I want the anthrax mailer or mailers found and punished to the maximum extent our society will allow. But what does any of this have to do with me?

“He should know, in fact, that while the anthrax letters are mailed from New Jersey and the first anthrax incidents occurred in Florida, I did not set foot in either of these states in September or October of 2001. We know, by the way, that some of the September 11th terrorists did. The FBI's focus on me seems to have eclipsed the need for appropriate inquiry into elementary, scientific aspects of the anthrax investigation. It took the FBI seven months after the letter attacks before they turned to assistance to Bill Patrick, the top dry-powder biological warfare expert in our country. How sensible is that? What inquiries have been made into who received the Ames strain of anthrax at any time prior to the fall of 2001? Until the mid 1990s, regulation of the traffic in dangerous bacteriological pathogens was very poorly controlled and poorly documented -- in some cases, non-existently documented. Saddam Hussein received his weaponizable strains of anthrax from the United States, from the American-type culture collection formerly in Rockville, Maryland.[lxxix] In the mid 1990s, one Larry Wayne Harris, a self-proclaimed member of the Aryan Nation, made up a phony letterhead on which he requested some bubonic plague bacteria from the American-type culture collection. Ladies and gentlemen, this is the organism that causes the Black Death. As I recall, he received some of it by mail. Largely as a result of this incident, policies and procedures governing the availability of forms of transmission of dangerous germs were strengthened. It is generally known that anthrax bacteria can live for decades in the soil or other hospitable environments. I don't think previous samples can be accounted for. Again, we still have to learn if the powder in question in the anthrax letters was prepared by sophisticated methods known only to select scientists or by more crude methods using information readily available on the Internet. Speaking of the Internet, the American people should know that the complete top-secret recipe for making smallpox into a sophisticated dry-powder biological weapon was recently posted by the U.S. government on the Internet by mistake for several weeks when a mistake at the U.S. Patent Office resulted in this material becoming open source. Thank God the document in question has finally been removed from the Internet, but not before anyone with an interest, foreign or domestic, would have had time to view it and download it. To my way of thinking, the lack of proper scientific input into this investigation is best illustrated by the fact that I am the one who had to suggest to the FBI the blood tests that they could perform on me to help rule me out as a suspect in this terrible crime. The test measures antibody levels, which would mark either my exposure to anthrax recently or a recent anthrax vaccination, not one that I've had two years ago. At long last, the government has agreed to my proposal, and I'll shortly be providing blood samples as I originally suggested. I hereby openly request the FBI make public the full results of these forthcoming tests, their conclusions based on these tests, and the scientific basis for the tests and the conclusions.”

Dr. Martin Hugh-Jones, an epidemiologist who researches anthrax and maintains a world-renowned anthrax database, said that Hatfill could have handled anthrax spores without personal contamination. Therefore, blood tests that did not detect anthrax exposure or did not detect evidence of an anthrax vaccine could be irrelevant. A person with Hatfill's reported skills "can minimize exposure," Hugh-Jones said. "This is a guy who had himself photographed wearing a do-it-yourself hazardous materials suit." Hugh-Jones stated that, after the anthrax mailings, he himself constructed anthrax-protection garb using plastic bags and plastic gloves. He said he also demonstrated that it was possible to use clear plastic bags and simple tools to place anthrax spores into an envelope without personal contamination. Clements also said that after handling anthrax spores, a person "might not have antibodies (in the blood)." A blood test could yield markers (antibodies) for a previous anthrax exposure, Hugh-Jones said. "However, the concentration is what you go by," he said. Hugh-Jones said it would be difficult to reach conclusions about a person's history of anthrax exposure without also knowing a person's previous concentrations of these markers at different periods of time. Clawson said Hatfill understood the importance of measuring the changing concentrations of antibodies in his blood and was working with the FBI to design tests that measure his blood over time. "He has offered to take blood samples three times during a six-week interval and to have the results compared to the wealth of data that exists on the anthrax vaccine to show that he has not been vaccinated since leaving Fort Detrick," Clawson said. Reading from Hatfill's statement, Clawson said, "What we are looking for is a detectable level of antibody titer (concentration) that would not be consistent with vaccination or exposure to anthrax over the past year." In addition, Hatfill "has not been exposed to anthrax, so far as he knows. Steve Hatfill voluntarily submitted three blood samples to the FBI. Each was given two weeks apart in the autumn of 2002. He also offered to provide handwriting exemplars, but the FBI declined his offer. Steve has waived his privacy rights and he has asked the FBI to make public the results of the blood tests. So far, they have declined to do so. I want you to clearly understand: Steve has volunteered information and cooperated with the FBI throughout this investigation. He has given them everything they have asked him to provide. Alan, I know you and I differ on this, but you and the FBI are focused on the wrong guy. Steve had nothing to do with the anthrax attacks and he certainly is not the bigot you have portrayed on your website. You and the FBI have done him an enormous injustice. Believe me, there's no one who wants the anthrax case solved more than Steve. He wants the FBI to solve this case soon so he can get his name cleared and his reputation restored. You might want to follow up with the Department of Justice's Office of Professional Responsibility to see what - if any - action they have taken on Victor Glasberg's complaint letters of last August.”

As to guilt or innocence, the evidence from Dr. Hatfill's blood sample would probably not be conclusive either way. If he was negative that doesn't mean he could not have used good technique and avoided any exposure. If he was positive, then it could easily be because of exposure to the microbe at the Army biowarfare defense laboratory at Fort Detrick. On the other hand, a positive result would not necessarily incriminate him, provided that the level of antibodies was not too high. The anthrax vaccine, which Dr. Hatfill has reported receiving three years ago, is not highly purified and may contain many other bacterial components, and so a small positive signal from his blood might be attributable to vaccination itself.

Hatfill, “I also proposed to give handwriting samples to the FBI so that they may draw conclusions regarding the likelihood that I wrote the anthrax letters. Here, too, I openly request the results of this examination, including all work sheets and analyses, be made public when completed. I ask the media to please monitor these tests, and the press, for their release if the government is not forthcoming. The one certain progress that the FBI has made in this investigation is its inability to find any evidence connecting me with the anthrax letter attacks. This is after an eight-month inquiry, and Lord knows how much taxpayer money has been poured into this effort to uncover my presumed guilt. I believe that sensible persons involved in the anthrax investigation have concluded that I have nothing to do with the anthrax letter attacks. But they are in a rough place. If the FBI does not have me as a person of interest, then what does it have? What it has is a stalled investigation, characterized by a lack of proper scientific investigation and expertise, its single-minded dedication to the use of so-called profilers. Remember, these are the folks that described the Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski, as a well-dressed manual laborer. It has a lack of the most basic understanding of the relevant biology by many frontline and senior FBI investigators. It has an investigation that is characterized by the apparent avoidance any of any major avenues of inquiry, except the one decided upon by the attorney general. Most importantly, it is driven by a compelling and overwhelming desire that the FBI look good at any cost, regardless of the price in individual freedom, due process, common decency and civil liberties.”

 Hatfill didn’t think much of the FBI’s biological forensic abilities - It has a lack of the most basic understanding of the relevant biology by many frontline and senior FBI investigators.

“I believe that I may actually get arrested when all this is said and done, and if it occurs, it will have nothing to do with anthrax. It will have everything to do with my being named the national person of interest. This title will first have caused painstaking inquiry into my past, the peccadilloes and all. Second, it will have given the authorities enormous incentive to justify their massive financial expenditure and the thousands of man-hours of effort arising out of their pursuit of me, and their heedless exposure of me and defamation as a murderer. For these reasons, even as I stand before you proclaiming my innocence of this terrible crime, I believe I shall yet pay a price for having been named a person of interest. If Steve Hatfill isn't the anthrax killer, well, he spit on a government sidewalk or littered in front of a government building somewhere, something he shouldn't have done. I should imagine that a great many Americans, including a host of our nation's political, social and intellectual leaders will be at serious risk of some sort of prosecution under these circumstances. This is the fate of a person of interest. In the end, I will be put at risk for things that inherently lack interest, but because I have been falsely smeared as a person of interest. Remember, please, that you heard this from me first.”

Hatfill was probably referring to the bogus diploma he used to defraud the United States Government. This was a preemptive strike in case the FBI busted him for that. People would say, “He predicted this would happen.”

“I fear what time will do, with the FBI's new powers under the 2001 Patriot Act. What will this country be like 10 or 20 years from now? Will it be like the America I love and would unhesitatingly risk my life to defend, or will it evolve into a suspicious society where uncharged persons of interest live in fear of damaging police and media intrusion? I never thought I would live to recite the slogan of the American Civil Liberties Union, but I must tell you, after what I have been through, I wholeheartedly embrace its motto: ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.’’’ Hatfill has changed from Nazi to Liberal! Eternal vigilance? It is the free press that is supposed to expose the United States Government’s wrongdoing yet Hatfill has sued ever publication that went after him in order to suppress their freedom.

“My story is not all sad and negative. I have been buoyed beyond words by the support of my family, friends, past and current colleagues, and even strangers, who, since my first news conference, have warmly greeted me on the streets or in letters. I thank my employer, Louisiana State University, for its incredible sensitivity in balancing its obvious institutional needs in light of my status as a person of interest with my own personal needs and circumstances. Thank you. As poorly as my own government and much of the press have treated me, those persons who mean the most to me have stood by me unflinchingly. For that, ladies and gentlemen, I am eternally grateful. Thank you.”

Hatfill lost his job at Louisiana State University altogether. The firing came on September 1, 2002 a month after the U.S. Justice Department, in August 1, 2002 e-mail, asked Louisiana State University not to use Hatfill on projects financed with Justice Department grants. That restriction would have complicated Hatfill's ability to function at the center. The email: “I want to reiterate that the Office of Justice Programs/Office for Domestic Preparedness directs that Louisiana State University Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education cease and desist from utilizing the subject matter expert and course instructor duties of Steven J. Hatfill on all Department of Justice funded programs.”

Stephen L. Guillot, Hatfill's sponsor who said that the FBI had told him that Hatfill was not on any lists and was not a suspect also got canned. Guillot was director of both the National Center for Biomedical Research and Training and the Academy for Counter-Terrorist Education. One reason Guillot got the boot was that he received the Justice Department communication and held it for a month without fully passing it up the line to senior Louisiana State University administrators. Hatfill's salary was financed with federal grants, and the center got about 97% of its budget from the Justice Department. The Justice Department initiative was a factor in both Hatfill's placement on administrative leave and his subsequent termination.

In March 2003, Hatfill went to a McLean, Virginia hotel room to meet a prospective employer to discuss plans for Hatfill to provide consulting services. Those plans were dashed, however, when at the conclusion of his meeting, he and his prospective employer walked out of the meeting room and were met by FBI special agents conspicuously videotaping the encounter (and the prospective employer). After this the prospective employer no longer had any interest in hiring Dr. Hatfill. FBI SA Robert Roth was asked about this incident:

Q. Let me ask you a hypothetical. If Security Service Group agents or special agents jumped Dr. Hatfill in the hallway with a video camera, not saying it happened, just if that happened within feet of Dr. Hatfill and the prospective employer, that’s fairly overt. Would you describe that?

A. That’s – that sort of description is – yeah, that’s pretty direct and close contact. If something like that happened I am not aware of it.

On May 17, 2003 Hatfill, realizing that the FBI was closing in on him, blew his cool and after being followed to Georgetown, in Washington D.C., got of out of his car and confronted his FBI tail by taking photographs of him. The FBI man began video taping Hatfill. What was Hatfill going to do with the photographs? Was there a threat implicit in his actions? It is not a crime to follow someone. Hatfill claimed the FBI surveillance specialist, Bryan Blankenship, ran over his foot but there was no record of Hatfill having been hospitalized. Steve was sprawled out on Wisconsin Avenue,” Clawson said. “He was dazed. His girlfriend started screaming.” When an officer of the D.C. Metropolitan Police Department arrived on the scene, Dr. Hatfill explained to an initially skeptical officer that the people who were following him were FBI agents who followed him everywhere. The officer then spoke privately with the FBI agents, who surprised him by confirming this story. When the agents prevailed upon the police officer to ticket Dr. Hatfill for something instead of ticketing the FBI agent who ran over Dr. Hatfill’s foot, the officer had to ask his superiors if they knew of anything Dr. Hatfill could be ticketed for. Eventually, he wrote Dr. Hatfill a ticket for “walking to create a hazard,” the one and only time the officer had ever written such a ticket, or is likely to. Clawson claimed Hatfill received emergency medical care at the scene of the incident but the FBI stated that he declined treatment. Hatfill was given a $5.00 ticket for “walking to create a hazard” after a policeman spoke with Blankenship. In August 2003 Hatfill and his pro-bono attorney Thomas Connolly fought the ticket but lost.

Judge Walton stated, “The FBI employed faux surveillance against Dr. Hatfill designed not for the covert gathering of evidence but for public consumption. The FBI placed Dr. Hatfill under “surveillance” that was pretty aggressive by surveillance standards. Such overt surveillance can send a message to the public. On one occasion, an FBI agent following Dr. Hatfill drove his vehicle over Dr. Hatfill’s foot. The Agency Defendants rejected Dr. Hatfill’s extraordinary offer to wear a GPS device, surrender his passport, and have an FBI agent in the car with him at all times in lieu of having agents tailing Dr. Hatfill.”[lxxx] Hatfill’s lawyer’s agreed, “For many months the defendants subjected Dr. Hatfill to “surveillance” that was so conspicuous as to be inconsistent with any genuine desire to obtain useful evidence.” The FBI was determined not to let Hatfill do another mailing.

A federal grand jury was empanelled in the anthrax case under the supervision of Roscoe C. Howard Jr., U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia in the summer of 2003. Hatfill's friends and colleagues and his former employers provided numerous documents under grand jury subpoena but apparently no one was called to testify. All the FBI needed was one spore that could be linked to Hatfill. The Justice Department doesn't indict unless they are sure they can win and they can’t win without physical evidence. Clint Van Zandt, a 25-year FBI veteran stated, “unless you have linking physical evidence that a jury can look at and say, ‘Yes, this is proof beyond a reasonable doubt,’ the government would have been stupid to go out and arrest Hatfill.” In 2006 Hatfill purchased a house at 10813 Warwick Avenue in Fairfax, Virginia for 400K.

Hatfill, “This assassination of my character appears to be part of a government-run effort to show the American people that it is proceeding vigorously and successfully with the anthrax investigation. Today, I again appear before the TV cameras. I want to look my fellow Americans directly in the eye and declare to them, I am not the anthrax killer. I know nothing about the anthrax attacks. I had absolutely nothing to do with this terrible crime. My life is being destroyed by arrogant government bureaucrats who are peddling groundless innuendo and half information about me to gullible reporters who, in turn, repeat this to the press under the guise of news.” “I am not the anthrax killer.” “I am not a crook,” said Richard Nixon. Are we supposed to take the word of this liar, who never passed a law enforcement administered polygraph in his entire life?


[i] Dr. Michie graduated with a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Dundee University in 1976. He is a Senior Specialist Medical Scientist working in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Medical Faculty at the University of Stellenbosch. He researches cancer treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs and electro-chemotherapy.


[ii]. Clawson was an investigative reporter for Cable News Network in CNN's Washington bureau from 1986 1988 and also worked for NBC Television and Radio. Clawson launched Virginians for Perot. The St. Louis Post Dispatch reported: Clawson worked in Michigan and returned to St. Louis to join a private investigative firm, Fitzgerald & Dorsey in 1980. It didn't last long. The FBI raided the office in September of that year, tipped off by Clawson that the Clayton agency had paid local police to tap into a national crime database and provide the office with confidential arrest records. It led to fines for the agency, as well as for officers in the Clayton, Florissant and St. Louis police departments, many of who resigned. It also led to Clawson's arrest on charges that he had asked the agency for $5,000 in return for not providing information to help prove the charges against it. A St. Louis County grand jury refused to indict him on the charges, deemed by Clawson as payback for “blowing the whistle on corrupt cops.” Clawson was labeled an “FBI informant” by the Saint Louis Post Dispatch. Clawson told me that Hatfill had lied himself into a corner and was one of the biggest liars on the planet earth. Clawson says he's been the target of FBI black bag jobs. His house in the Shenandoah Valley was broken into at least twice.

[iii]. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~chey/guest1.html GENEALOGY PAGE

[iv]. http://branches.hughessupply.com/elasco/history.html HUGHES SUPPLY

[v]. NJ Star-Ledger 8-5-02 Richard Spertzel Anthrax case entangles U.S. expert FBI scrutinizing scientist who taught biodefense to agent Sunday, August 04, 2002 BY Kevin Coughlin Star-Ledger Staff

[vi]. Hatfill v Ashcroft Defendants Exhibit 48

[vii]. Born April 19, 1928, Peck, Minnesota.

[viii]. http://wuli.com/inferno/index.php?blogid=1&archive=2007-11

[ix]. http://www.forensic-intelligence.org/hatfill.pdf

[x]. The U.S. Army Institute for Military Assistance was an offshoot of the guerrilla operations of the OSS, the predecessor to the CIA. It became the nucleus of men and techniques that would give birth to Special Forces (more popularly known as the Green Berets). In July 1983 it was renamed the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School. The Green Berets are known as an elite fighting unit but there is a strong overlapping with the intelligence community. The CIA trains some of it’s agents who operate with military cover at Fort Bragg, and Fort Bragg has the reputation of being a “spook operation.”

[xi]. The Associated Press May 14, 1978, AM cycle Length: 664 words Dateline: Kinshasa, Zaire

[xii]. Goldberg and Mangold Plague Wars McMillan

[xiii]. Dr. Meryl Nass has a BS degree in Biology from MIT (1974) and an MD from the University of Mississippi Medical School (1980). She is a member of the Federation of American Scientists Working Group on Biological Weapons Verification.

[xiv]. http://www.panmacmillan.com/PlagueWars/PDFs/PW_C22pp214_223.pdf Harare’s Blair Financial Gazette Thursday 10 December 1998 Research Institute Biomedical Research Institute of Southern Africa, Health Minister Timothy Stamps, “Probe launched into Rhodesian forces’ use of biological warfare.”

[xv]. Milton Leitenberg Memorandum Re: Further Gratuitous Inaccuracies in the David Tell/Weekly Standard Story, “The Hunting of Steven J. Hatfill” (Leitenberg Dep. Ex. 6);

[xvi]. http://www.cissm.umd.edu/people/profile.php?id=23

[xvii]. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/020826/usnews/26anthrax.htm

[xviii]. http://www.panmacmillan.com/PlagueWars/PDFs/PW_C22pp214_223.pdf

[xix]. http://www.mg.co.za/articledirect.aspx?area=mg_flat&articleid=7349

[xx]. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A49717-2003Sep9?language=printer

[xxi]. Stephen P. Dresch, Ph.D. Forensic Intelligence International, LLC 318 Cooper Ave., Hancock, MI 49930; 151 Moore St. SE, Crawfordville, GA

[xxii]. http://www.dispatch.co.za/2002/11/19/easterncape/BASSON.HTM

[xxiii]. 979-285-9903

[xxiv]. http://www.sundaytimes.co.za/1999/10/31/news/news03.htm Sunday Times SA

[xxv]. http://www.dispatch.co.za/2002/11/19/easterncape/BASSON.HTM

[xxvi]. Cape Argus July 4, 2002

[xxvii]. Cent. African Journal of Medicine. July 32 (7) 159-63. 1986 was the first year of the AIDS epidemic that struck Zimbabwe and the possibly exists that Hatfill traveled there to investigate this new disease. In 1998 Chigwanda spoke at the International Conference on AIDS.[xxvii] In January 1999 P.C. Chigwanda supported claims by two journalists that military police repeatedly tortured them for reporting on an alleged coup plot. The journalists said they had suffered severe torture, including electric shocks to their genitals, at the hands of military police and intelligence agents who wanted them to reveal their sources for a report that some soldiers had planned to overthrow President Robert Mugabe in December 1998.

[xxviii] Picornaviruses are among the oldest known viruses and date back to a temple record from Egypt ca. 1400 B.C. They are a diverse group of human viral pathogens that together constitute the most common causes of infections of humans in the developed world. Within the picornavirus family, there are 3 well-known groups of human pathogens: the human rhinoviruses (HRVs); the enteroviruses (EVs) (inc. polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses); and the hepatoviruses (including hepatitis A).

[xxix]. http://www.libraries.wright.edu/special/manuscripts/fsc-40.html

[xxx]. Leukemia Res. 14;(1), 57-62.

[xxxi]. http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1983_11_SAfrica.pdf

[xxxii]. http://www.sabcnews.com/south_africa/crime1justice/0,1009,35340,00.html


Jeremiah Marquez “Man in Anthrax Probe Bragged of Ties” August 8, 4:10 PM ET By, Associated Press Writer Johannesburg, South Africa (AP)

[xxxiii]. New York Times November 17, 18, 1988

[xxxiv]. Southern Poverty Law Center Report on Harold Covington 29 Palamos Road, Leyton, London E10

[xxxv]. http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/special/cbw/cbw5.htm CHEMICAL AND BIO PROGRAM SA

[xxxvi]. J. Inv. Path. 55; 265-271.

[xxxvii]. Hatfill, S.J. 1990. “Military health strategy during the global AIDS pandemic.” Armed Forces (October 1990): 9-10.

[xxxviii]. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-1840031,00.html Tvette Van Breda

[xxxix]. EMBO J. 7, 2131, 1988

[xl]. TIBS 158, 52, 1989; Differentiation 37, 773, 1988

[xli]. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2936, 1980

[xlii]. Embryopathic Activity of Drugs, Little Brown, Boston, p. 167, 1965; Haematological Cytology, Wolf Med. Pub. Ltd, London, p. 118, 1982

[xliii]. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 2545, 1981

[xliv]. Date: Fri 17 Sep 93 12:47 GMT+200 From: elb@maties.sun.ac.za To: kirby@dtkl.ym.edu.tw Subject: [Steven Hatfill]

[xlv]. Induction of morphological differentiation in the human leukemic cell line K562 by exposure to thalidomide metabolites. Hatfill SJ, Fester ED, de Beer DP, Bohm L. Radiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, R.S.A. Leuk Res. 1991;15 (2-3):129-36.

[xlvi]. Leukemia Res. 15;(5), 315-320.

[xlvii]. Hatfill, S. J., Bohm L., Downing, T. G. & Kirby, R. (1992) Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome. Lancet,340, 370.

[xlviii]. Hematological Pathology, 6;(2), 87-93.

[xlix]. Lancet, 340; Aug. 8 1992.

[l]. Leukemia Res. 17; (11), 907-903.

[li]. Gary Fields The Wall Street Journal August 12, 2002

[lii]. J. Neurol. Oncol. 26; 209-219.

[liii]. Gartrell K, De Villiers B, Hatfill S. Benadé JG. Epidemiological Study of Serious Haematological Diseases in the Pofadder area.

[liv]. Cell Vision, 3; (5); 397-401.

[lv]. http://www.noor scientific.com/bio_rotary_cell_culture_systems.htm#Bioreactor%20Technology


http://www.noor-scientific.com/bio_rotary_cell_culture_systems.htm More Bioreactor

[lvi] Leonid Margolis and Duray

[lvii]. In 1993, a task force of scientists in New Mexico discovered a previously unknown infectious disease agent that occurs naturally throughout most of North America; it is airborne, and in the absence of prompt medical attention, its infections are usually fatal. This disease is called Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. A “hantavirus” belongs to a group of RNA virii related to the family Bunyaviridae and, depending on its nature, may be the etiological agent for one of two acute illnesses: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The HFRS-causing hantavirii are endemic to East Asia, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome-causing hantavarii are endemic to the New World. But like all virii, the range of their natural hosts, which are rodents, most notably deer mice, dictates their distributions. At the USAMRIID Hatfill used an alias and traveled to Central Asia, where he brought back samples of the HFRS-causing hantavirii.

[lviii]. John Ezzell Deposition (11/21/06) at 60, 63, 66.

[lix]. Huggins Deposition Hatfill v New York Times

[lx]. Cohn, T.A., Caulder, D.L., Gilroy, E.J., Zynjuk, L.D., and Summers, R.M., 1992. The validity of a simple log-linear model for estimating fluvial constituent loads: An empirical study involving nutrient loads entering Chesapeake Bay: Water Resources Research, v. 28, no. 9, p. 2,353-2,364.



[lxi]. David McGlinchey Global Security Newswire October 27, 2003 “U.S. Scientist Highlights Dangers of Enhanced Smallpox, Monkeypox”

[lxii]. Francisella tularensis is a hardy non-spore forming organism that is capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw or decaying animal carcasses. It is the organism that causes tularemia, and is one of the most infectious pathogenic bacteria known, requiring inoculation or inhalation of as few as 10 organisms to cause disease. It is considered to be a dangerous potential biological weapon because of its extreme infectivity, ease of dissemination, and substantial capacity to cause illness and death. During World War II, Japan as well the US and its allies studied the potential of F. tularensis as a biological weapon. Tularemia was one of several biological weapons that were stockpiled by the US military in the late 1960's, all of which were destroyed by 1973. The Soviet Union continued weapons production of antibiotic and vaccine resistant strains into the early 1990s.

[lxiii]. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus’s serologoly was first documented in 1960 during a survey of Seminole Indians from the Big Cypress and Brighton reservations. Follow-up investigations conducted by the Center for Disease Control in 1963 and 1964 resulted in the isolation of Florida’s VEE virus from mosquitoes. VEE was weaponized by the United States in the 1950's and 1960's before the U.S. offensive biowarfare program was terminated, and other countries have been or are suspected to have weaponized this agent.

[lxiv]. SEB is superantigen that stimulates the major histocompatibility complex, producing a multi-system disease resembling sepsis: Examples include toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning. SEB is considered an incapacitating agent, although it can be lethal to some exposed victims. Botulinum toxin is derived from the genus of anaerobic bacteria named Clostridia. It is the deadliest poison in the world, although ricin is not far behind.

[lxv]. Science and Medicine, 4 (3) 46-55.

[lxvi]. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 13, 16, 1997.

[lxvii]. Katrina Barlow Deposition (10/26/06) at 34,

[lxviii]. General Meeting, New York, NY Thursday, May 21, 1998

[lxix]. 1. Registration Number: TXu-887-264 Title: Emergence.

Description: 198 p. Claimant: ac Steven J. Hatfill, 1953-, & ac Roger Akers , 1947-

Created: not given on application. Registered: August 26, 1998 Author on C Application: text:

Steven J. Hatfill; revisions & some Text: Roger Akers. Special Codes: 1/B

[lxx]. New York Times August 12, 2002

[lxxi]. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/19/international/asia/19CHEM.html

[lxxii]. Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Frightening Future for Primary Care Providers May 31 - June 1, 2002 Washington DC; June 7-8, 2002 Dallas, TX

[lxxiii]. http://www.ctnow.com/news/nationworld/hc-anthrax0627.artjun27.story?coll=hc-headlines-home NEWS STORY

[lxxiv]. State Department Daily Briefing July 3, 2003

[lxxv]. Case 1:04-cv-00807-CMH-LO Document 277 Filed 01/30/2007 Page 25 of 28

[lxxvi]. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/3595056.htm The Mercury News AP item July 4, 2002

[lxxvii]. Deposition of Robert Blitzer (Oct. 27, 2006) at 137-38.


[lxxviii]. http://www.ctnow.com/templates/misc/printstory.jsp?slug=hc%2Dhatfill0812%2Eartaug12 CT NOW

[lxxix]. The White House used the anthrax attacks to push its Iraq war agenda by leaking a false news story that the anthrax sent to Senator Daschle contained bentonite, a tell tale sign that it originated in Iraq, then denying that this was the case.

[lxxx]. Case 1:03-cv-01793-RBW Document 229-3 Filed 04/11/2008 Page 92 of 114


Detrick Plaza Apartments 1709 W 7th St Frederick Maryland 21702 Phone: 301-663-9221


Financial Gazette Thursday December 10 1998 Probe launched into Rhodesian forces’ use of biological warfare By Staff Reporter



Southern Poverty Law Center Report on Harold Covington 29 Palamos Road, Leyton, London E10

Harare’s Blair Research Institute Biomedical Research Institute of Southern Africa. Health Minister Timothy Stamps, Financial Gazette Thursday 10 December 1998 Probe launched into Rhodesian forces’ use of biological warfare By Staff Reporter





AIDS link to CCB Probed Sunday Times, South Africa - Sunday, June 21, 1998 Tvette Van Breda

At the end of 1999, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1284 which replaced UNSCOM with the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). During a telephone call to the UNMOVIC office at the UN the author was told that it was impossible to determine if Hatfill worked for UNSCOM and it didn't matter if Hatfill was a Nazi.


Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Frightening Future for Primary Care Providers May 31 - June 1, 2002 Washington DC; June 7-8, 2002 Dallas, TX


NYT June 23, 2002

Anthrax? The F.B.I. Yawns By NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF NYT July 2, 2002

Washington Times







Two months ago an Internet search for information about Steven Jay Hatfill would have produced less than a dozen results, confined to scientific research bearing his name. This week surfers can choose from close on 7000 "hits", ranging from a 50-page diatribe by the Jewish Defence Organisation -- which dubs the American doctor "Steven Mengele" and challenges him to sue for defamation -- to reports in French, German, Spanish, Danish, even Vietnamese. CONTINUE


THE FEATHERMAN FILE of Noteworthy Items in the Press

Hatfill Rumors August 16, 2002: Sources reached by the Forward say they can vouch for stories in South African newspapers reporting that Dr. Steven Hatfill, the scientist under scrutiny by the FBI in connection with the recent deadly anthrax attacks, boasted that he had close ties to imprisoned South African neo-Nazi leader Eugene Terre'Blanche.

Two sources who worked with Hatfill at the University of Stellenbosch in the Western Cape confirmed reports that ran in Cape Times and other newspapers last month saying that Hatfill bragged of connections with Terre'Blanche. Hatfill said he trained elite bodyguards in Terre'Blanche's Afrikaner Resistance Movement, or AWB, in 1987 or 1988, sources told the Forward. A photo of Terre'Blanche surrounded by his brigade, including Hatfill in uniform, hung in the university's radiobiology lab in the department of radiation oncology, where Hatfill worked, sources said. The sources, who asked to remain anonymous, said they were no longer able to find the photo.

Cape Times reported in July that Hatfill trained the AWB's Aquila Brigade. Other South African newspapers in the area that are owned by the same publisher, the Independent News & Media, picked up the story. Reached by the Forward, the Cape Times reporter, Tony Weaver, stood by his article and said it had been corroborated by several sources. He declined to reveal them. "He's very well known about Cape Town," Weaver said about Hatfill.

But an AWB "executive councilor," Andre Visagie, reached in Kimberly, South Africa, denied the connection. Visagie said there was no record or memory of Hatfill's alleged involvement with the AWB and that Terre'Blanche, whom Visagie contacted in prison, never heard of him. "These accusations are aimed at stopping Mr. Terre'Blanche's release from prison," said Visagie, whose leader was sentenced to six years in jail for a beating in 1997 that left a black worker paralyzed.

Visagie also claimed there had been no Aquila training camps where Hatfill was said to have been stationed, and that they only existed in Transvaal, in the north. But Keith Conroy, a former Aquila instructor, who confirmed reports that he was the chief trainer of the AWB's armed wings, told the Forward there were such camps near Hatfill's university. He said, however, that he does not remember meeting Hatfill, and that he would have remembered someone with an American accent.

The American-born Hatfill, a medical doctor, spent 15 years in southern Africa, returning to the United States in 1995. Although the FBI has searched Hatfill's home, they have not labeled him a suspect in the anthrax attacks. Hatfill denounced the news media this week and vehemently denied any connection to the attacks.


LAS VEGAS (AP) - Microbiologist. Author of a vanity press book on surviving germ warfare. Officer for the white supremacist group Aryan Nations.

"He scares me," an Ohio neighbor said of Larry Wayne Harris, who sat Thursday in a cell here, charged with possessing the fearsome germ warfare agent anthrax.

FBI agents were scared too, when they arrested Harris and a companion. They had the men's Mercedes wrapped in plastic and spirited off to a secure Air Force base for testing.

Harris, according to a sketchy FBI account, once told an unspecified group about plans to plant a "globe" of bubonic plague toxins on the New York subway tracks in an attack calculated to kill hundreds of thousands of people and ruin the economy.

The motive for the alleged scheme isn't spelled out in an FBI affidavit filed here. Nor does the government say what it thinks Harris, 46, and William Job Leavitt Jr., 47, were doing here with vials of a substance believed to be anthrax.

Harris' statements about the subway sabotage allegedly were made in the summer of 1997, two years after he was arrested in Ohio with three vials of bubonic plague toxins in the glove compartment of his car.

He pleaded guilty in 1995 to mail fraud for using his company's letterhead to order the germs from a biological supply house in Maryland and was put on 18 months probation.

Harris maintained at the time that he never intended to hurt anybody, that he wanted the bacteria for research on his book, the self-published "Bacteriological Warfare: A Major Threat to North America."

The book is cast as instructions on how to survive a biological attack. The Klanwatch project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors extremist groups, contends it amounts to manual for biological terrorism."I am a scientist. I am absolutely of no harm to anyone. I never, never intended to hurt anyone," he said at the time.

The FBI affidavit, based on testimony of an anonymous doctor who turned the men in, says Harris and Leavitt approached him about a project to test an electronic device intended to deactivate viruses and bacteria.

In a 1997 interview for a TV documentary, Harris claimed he got anthrax spores by sinking a long metal probe into a 20-year-old burial site for cows infected with the disease. Harris claimed he successfully cultured the spores in his lab, but refused to say if he possessed anthrax, said James Neff, who conducted the interview.

Neff, Kiplinger Professor of Journalism at Ohio State University, collaborated on the never-aired documentary with Oregon Public Broadcasting; parts of their tape were aired on ABC Thursday.

According to Neff, Harris described how someone could create a deadly broth from the anthrax culture, put it in a pressurized paint sprayer and then spread the deadly germs from a low-flying airplane like a crop duster. It would kill at least 100,000, Harris said, and be undetectable. "No smell, no taste, no kaboom," he quoted Harris as saying.

The FBI affidavit says Harris claimed to be a lieutenant colonel in the Idaho-based white supremacist group Aryan Nations. The group's leader, Richard Butler, at first denied a connection, then said Harris was a member from the early 1990s until 1995.

"He scares me, especially for his racist remarks and because he's been involved in some far-right groups," said Verna Linehan, 50, who lives a few houses away from Harris in Lancaster, 30 miles southeast of Columbus.

In another odd twist to his story, Harris was called as a witness last summer in the trial of an Ohio man charged with assaulting a police officer who pulled him over driving a car stuffed with two guns, 400 rounds of ammunition and alleged bomb ingredients.

Defendant Stephen Wharf, then 23, pleaded innocent by reason of insanity and his lawyer contended Harris' message of hate helped push Wharf over the edge. In his testimony, Harris talked about how Iranian terrorists are poised to start biological warfare in the United States.

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- An Ohio man arrested in a Nevada anthrax scare was given a longer, more restrictive probation Tuesday for telling people he was with the CIA. Larry Wayne Harris, 46, of Lancaster, was on 18 months' probation from a 1995 conviction for illegally ordering bubonic plague bacteria by mail. On Tuesday a judge wiped the remaining six months off the books and gave him another year -- effectively putting him on probation for an extra six months.

Harris and Nevada resident William Job Leavitt Jr., 47, of Logandale, were arrested in Las Vegas on Feb. 18 after an FBI informant said they claimed to have deadly, military-grade anthrax in their possession.Charges against Harris and Leavitt were dismissed Feb. 23 after tests showed the material was a harmless anthrax veterinary vaccine.

Some of those charges -- that he claimed to have deadly anthrax and produced infectious disease, bacteria or germs at his home in Lancaster, about 30 miles south of Columbus -- later were dismissed by federal Magistrate Mark Abel for lack of evidence. But Abel found there was enough evidence to hold a hearing on other accusations of probation violation, and Harris was released to face probation violation charges in Ohio.

During a U.S. District Court hearing in Columbus, Harris admitted Tuesday that he violated probation by lying about an association with the CIA and failing to tell authorities that he switched hotel rooms while he was in Las Vegas. Judge Joseph Kinneary imposed the new probation, which will require Harris to report to a probation officer more often. Harris also was ordered to serve 50 hours of community service. He could have been sentenced to up to five years in jail for violating probation."I am sorry for any inconvenience I caused the court," Harris told Kinneary. Later, as he left court, Harris said only that he felt "fantastic" but wouldn't comment further. "Larry has done nothing wrong. He committed no crimes," his attorney Curt Griffith said after the hearing. Griffith then warned Harris: "Don't let the word `CIA' come out of your mouth." Harris smiled in response.